From Bitcoin Wiki
There are two variations of the original bitcoin program available; one with a graphical user interface (usually referred to as just “Bitcoin”), and a 'headless' version (called bitcoind). They are completely compatible with each other, and take the same command-line arguments, read the same configuration file, and read and write the same data files. You can run one copy of either Bitcoin or bitcoind on your system at a time (if you accidently try to launch another, the copy will let you know that Bitcoin or bitcoind is already running and will exit).
The simplest way to start from scratch with the command line client, automatically syncing blockchain and creating a wallet, is to just run this command (without arguments) from the directory containing your bitcoind binary:
To run with the standard GUI interface:
These commands are accurate as of Bitcoin Core version v0.14.0.
|-?||Print this help message and exit|
|-version||Print version and exit|
||Execute command when a relevant alert is received or we see a really long fork (%s in cmd is replaced by message)|
||Execute command when the best block changes (%s in cmd is replaced by block hash)|
||If this block is in the chain assume that it and its ancestors are valid and potentially skip their script verification (0 to verify all, default: 00000000000000000013176bf8d7dfeab4e1db31dc93bc311b436e82ab226b90, testnet: 00000000000128796ee387cf110ccb9d2f36cffaf7f73079c995377c65ac0dcc)|
||Specify configuration file (default: bitcoin.conf)|
||Specify data directory|
||Set database cache size in megabytes (4 to 16384, default: 300)|
||Imports blocks from external blk000??.dat file on startup|
|| Keep at most |
|| Keep the transaction memory pool below |
|| Do not keep transactions in the mempool longer than |
||Extra transactions to keep in memory for compact block reconstructions (default: 100)|
||Set the number of script verification threads (-2 to 16, 0 = auto, <0 = leave that many cores free, default: 0)|
||Specify pid file (default: bitcoind.pid)|
||Reduce storage requirements by enabling pruning (deleting) of old blocks. This allows the pruneblockchain RPC to be called to delete specific blocks, and enables automatic pruning of old blocks if a target size in MiB is provided. This mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan. Warning: Reverting this setting requires re-downloading the entire blockchain. (default: 0 = disable pruning blocks, 1 = allow manual pruning via RPC, >550 = automatically prune block files to stay under the specified target size in MiB)|
|-reindex-chainstate||Rebuild chain state from the currently indexed blocks|
|-reindex||Rebuild chain state and block index from the blk*.dat files on disk|
|-sysperms||Create new files with system default permissions, instead of umask 077 (only effective with disabled wallet functionality)|
|-txindex||Maintain a full transaction index, used by the getrawtransaction rpc call (default: 0)|
||Add a node to connect to and attempt to keep the connection open|
||Threshold for disconnecting misbehaving peers (default: 100)|
||Number of seconds to keep misbehaving peers from reconnecting (default: 86400)|
|-bind=||Bind to given address and always listen on it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6|
||Connect only to the specified node(s); -noconnect or -connect=0 alone to disable automatic connections|
|-discover||Discover own IP addresses (default: 1 when listening and no -externalip or -proxy)|
|-dns||Allow DNS lookups for -addnode, -seednode and -connect (default: 1)|
|-dnsseed||Query for peer addresses via DNS lookup, if low on addresses (default: 1 unless -connect/-noconnect)|
||Specify your own public address|
|-forcednsseed||Always query for peer addresses via DNS lookup (default: 0)|
|-listen||Accept connections from outside (default: 1 if no -proxy or -connect/-noconnect)|
|-listenonion||Automatically create Tor hidden service (default: 1)|
|| Maintain at most |
|| Maximum per-connection receive buffer, |
|| Maximum per-connection send buffer, |
|-maxtimeadjustment||Maximum allowed median peer time offset adjustment. Local perspective of time may be influenced by peers forward or backward by this amount. (default: 4200 seconds)|
||Use separate SOCKS5 proxy to reach peers via Tor hidden services (default: -proxy)|
|| Only connect to nodes in network |
|-permitbaremultisig||Relay non-P2SH multisig (default: 1)|
|-peerbloomfilters||Support filtering of blocks and transaction with bloom filters (default: 1)|
|| Listen for connections on |
||Connect through SOCKS5 proxy|
|-proxyrandomize||Randomize credentials for every proxy connection. This enables Tor stream isolation (default: 1)|
|-rpcserialversion||Sets the serialization of raw transaction or block hex returned in non-verbose mode, non-segwit(0) or segwit(1) (default: 1)|
||Connect to a node to retrieve peer addresses, and disconnect|
||Specify connection timeout in milliseconds (minimum: 1, default: 5000)|
||Tor control port to use if onion listening enabled (default: 127.0.0.1:9051)|
||Tor control port password (default: empty)|
||Use UPnP to map the listening port (default: 0)|
|-whitebind=||Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6|
||Whitelist peers connecting from the given IP address (e.g. 126.96.36.199) or CIDR notated network (e.g. 188.8.131.52/24). Can be specified multiple times. Whitelisted peers cannot be DoS banned and their transactions are always relayed, even if they are already in the mempool, useful e.g. for a gateway|
|-whitelistrelay||Accept relayed transactions received from whitelisted peers even when not relaying transactions (default: 1)|
|-whitelistforcerelay||Force relay of transactions from whitelisted peers even if they violate local relay policy (default: 1)|
||Tries to keep outbound traffic under the given target (in MiB per 24h), 0 = no limit (default: 0)|
|-disablewallet||Do not load the wallet and disable wallet RPC calls|
|| Set key pool size to |
|-fallbackfee=||A fee rate (in BTC/kB) that will be used when fee estimation has insufficient data (default: 0.0002)|
|-mintxfee=||Fees (in BTC/kB) smaller than this are considered zero fee for transaction creation (default: 0.00001)|
|-paytxfee=||Fee (in BTC/kB) to add to transactions you send (default: 0.00)|
|-rescan||Rescan the block chain for missing wallet transactions on startup|
|-salvagewallet||Attempt to recover private keys from a corrupt wallet on startup|
|-spendzeroconfchange||Spend unconfirmed change when sending transactions (default: 1)|
||If paytxfee is not set, include enough fee so transactions begin confirmation on average within n blocks (default: 6)|
|-usehd||Use hierarchical deterministic key generation (HD) after BIP32. Only has effect during wallet creation/first start (default: 1)|
|-walletrbf||Send transactions with full-RBF opt-in enabled (default: 0)|
|-upgradewallet||Upgrade wallet to latest format on startup|
||Specify wallet file (within data directory) (default: wallet.dat)|
|-walletbroadcast||Make the wallet broadcast transactions (default: 1)|
||Execute command when a wallet transaction changes (%s in cmd is replaced by TxID)|
||Delete all wallet transactions and only recover those parts of the blockchain through -rescan on startup (1 = keep tx meta data e.g. account owner and payment request information, 2 = drop tx meta data)|
ZeroMQ notification options:
|-zmqpubhashblock=||Enable publish hash block in|
|-zmqpubhashtx=||Enable publish hash transaction in|
|-zmqpubrawblock=||Enable publish raw block in|
|-zmqpubrawtx=||Enable publish raw transaction in|
||Append comment to the user agent string|
|| Output debugging information (default: 0, supplying |
|-help-debug||Show all debugging options (usage: --help -help-debug)|
|-logips||Include IP addresses in debug output (default: 0)|
|-logtimestamps||Prepend debug output with timestamp (default: 1)|
|-minrelaytxfee=||Fees (in BTC/kB) smaller than this are considered zero fee for relaying, mining and transaction creation (default: 0.00001)|
|-maxtxfee=||Maximum total fees (in BTC) to use in a single wallet transaction or raw transaction; setting this too low may abort large transactions (default: 0.10)|
|-printtoconsole||Send trace/debug info to console instead of debug.log file|
|-shrinkdebugfile||Shrink debug.log file on client startup (default: 1 when no -debug)|
Chain selection options:
|-testnet||Use the test chain|
Node relay options:
|-bytespersigop||Equivalent bytes per sigop in transactions for relay and mining (default: 20)|
|-datacarrier||Relay and mine data carrier transactions (default: 1)|
|-datacarriersize||Maximum size of data in data carrier transactions we relay and mine (default: 83)|
|-mempoolreplacement||Enable transaction replacement in the memory pool (default: 1)|
Block creation options:
||Set maximum BIP141 block weight (default: 3000000)|
||Set maximum block size in bytes (default: 750000)|
||Set maximum size of high-priority/low-fee transactions in bytes (default: 0)|
|-blockmintxfee=||Set lowest fee rate (in BTC/kB) for transactions to be included in block creation. (default: 0.00001)|
RPC server options:
|-server||Accept command line and JSON-RPC commands|
|-rest||Accept public REST requests (default: 0)|
|-rpcbind=||Bind to given address to listen for JSON-RPC connections. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6. This option can be specified multiple times (default: bind to all interfaces)|
||Location of the auth cookie (default: data dir)|
||Username for JSON-RPC connections|
||Password for JSON-RPC connections|
|| Username and hashed password for JSON-RPC connections. The field |
|| Listen for JSON-RPC connections on |
|| Allow JSON-RPC connections from specified source. Valid for |
||Set the number of threads to service RPC calls (default: 4)|
|-choosedatadir||Choose data directory on startup (default: 0)|
||Set language, for example "de_DE" (default: system locale)|
||Set SSL root certificates for payment request (default: -system-)|
|-splash||Show splash screen on startup (default: 1)|
|-resetguisettings||Reset all settings changed in the GUI|
Many of the boolean options can also be set to off by specifying them with a "no" prefix: e.g. -nodnseed.
Bitcoin.conf Configuration File
All command-line options (except for -conf) may be specified in a configuration file, and all configuration file options may also be specified on the command line. Command-line options override values set in the configuration file.
The configuration file is a list of setting=value pairs, one per line, with optional comments starting with the '#' character.
The configuration file is not automatically created; you can create it using your favorite plain-text editor. A user-friendly configuration file generator is available here. By default, Bitcoin (or bitcoind) will look for a file named 'bitcoin.conf' in the bitcoin data directory, but both the data directory and the configuration file path may be changed using the -datadir and -conf command-line arguments.
|Operating System||Default bitcoin datadir||Typical path to configuration file|
|Mac OSX||$HOME/Library/Application Support/Bitcoin/||/Users/username/Library/Application Support/Bitcoin/bitcoin.conf|
Note: if running Bitcoin in testnet mode, the sub-folder "testnet" will be appended to the data directory automatically.
Copied from https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/contrib/debian/examples/bitcoin.conf:
## ## bitcoin.conf configuration file. Lines beginning with # are comments. ## # Network-related settings: # Run on the test network instead of the real bitcoin network. #testnet=0 # Run a regression test network #regtest=0 # Connect via a SOCKS5 proxy #proxy=127.0.0.1:9050 # Bind to given address and always listen on it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6 #bind= # Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6 #whitebind= ############################################################## ## Quick Primer on addnode vs connect ## ## Let's say for instance you use addnode=184.108.40.206 ## ## addnode will connect you to and tell you about the ## ## nodes connected to 220.127.116.11. In addition it will tell ## ## the other nodes connected to it that you exist so ## ## they can connect to you. ## ## connect will not do the above when you 'connect' to it. ## ## It will *only* connect you to 18.104.22.168 and no one else.## ## ## ## So if you're behind a firewall, or have other problems ## ## finding nodes, add some using 'addnode'. ## ## ## ## If you want to stay private, use 'connect' to only ## ## connect to "trusted" nodes. ## ## ## ## If you run multiple nodes on a LAN, there's no need for ## ## all of them to open lots of connections. Instead ## ## 'connect' them all to one node that is port forwarded ## ## and has lots of connections. ## ## Thanks goes to [Noodle] on Freenode. ## ############################################################## # Use as many addnode= settings as you like to connect to specific peers #addnode=22.214.171.124 #addnode=10.0.0.2:8333 # Alternatively use as many connect= settings as you like to connect ONLY to specific peers #connect=126.96.36.199 #connect=10.0.0.1:8333 # Listening mode, enabled by default except when 'connect' is being used #listen=1 # Maximum number of inbound outbound connections. #maxconnections= # # JSON-RPC options (for controlling a running Bitcoin/bitcoind process) # # server=1 tells Bitcoin-Qt and bitcoind to accept JSON-RPC commands #server=0 # Bind to given address to listen for JSON-RPC connections. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6. # This option can be specified multiple times (default: bind to all interfaces) #rpcbind= # If no rpcpassword is set, rpc cookie auth is sought. The default `-rpccookiefile` name # is .cookie and found in the `-datadir` being used for bitcoind. This option is typically used # when the server and client are run as the same user. # # If not, you must set rpcuser and rpcpassword to secure the JSON-RPC api. The first # method(DEPRECATED) is to set this pair for the server and client: #rpcuser=Ulysseys #rpcpassword=YourSuperGreatPasswordNumber_DO_NOT_USE_THIS_OR_YOU_WILL_GET_ROBBED_385593 # # The second method `rpcauth` can be added to server startup argument. It is set at intialization time # using the output from the script in share/rpcuser/rpcuser.py after providing a username: # # ./share/rpcuser/rpcuser.py alice # String to be appended to bitcoin.conf: # rpcauth=alice:f7efda5c189b999524f151318c0c86$d5b51b3beffbc02b724e5d095828e0bc8b2456e9ac8757ae3211a5d9b16a22ae # Your password: # DONT_USE_THIS_YOU_WILL_GET_ROBBED_8ak1gI25KFTvjovL3gAM967mies3E= # # On client-side, you add the normal user/password pair to send commands: #rpcuser=alice #rpcpassword=DONT_USE_THIS_YOU_WILL_GET_ROBBED_8ak1gI25KFTvjovL3gAM967mies3E= # # You can even add multiple entries of these to the server conf file, and client can use any of them: # rpcauth=bob:b2dd077cb54591a2f3139e69a897ac$4e71f08d48b4347cf8eff3815c0e25ae2e9a4340474079f55705f40574f4ec99 # How many seconds bitcoin will wait for a complete RPC HTTP request. # after the HTTP connection is established. #rpcclienttimeout=30 # By default, only RPC connections from localhost are allowed. # Specify as many rpcallowip= settings as you like to allow connections from other hosts, # either as a single IPv4/IPv6 or with a subnet specification. # NOTE: opening up the RPC port to hosts outside your local trusted network is NOT RECOMMENDED, # because the rpcpassword is transmitted over the network unencrypted. # server=1 tells Bitcoin-Qt to accept JSON-RPC commands. # it is also read by bitcoind to determine if RPC should be enabled #rpcallowip=10.1.1.34/255.255.255.0 #rpcallowip=188.8.131.52/24 #rpcallowip=2001:db8:85a3:0:0:8a2e:370:7334/96 # Listen for RPC connections on this TCP port: #rpcport=8332 # You can use Bitcoin or bitcoind to send commands to Bitcoin/bitcoind # running on another host using this option: #rpcconnect=127.0.0.1 # Create transactions that have enough fees so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 6). # This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option. #txconfirmtarget=n # Miscellaneous options # Pre-generate this many public/private key pairs, so wallet backups will be valid for # both prior transactions and several dozen future transactions. #keypool=100 # Pay an optional transaction fee every time you send bitcoins. Transactions with fees # are more likely than free transactions to be included in generated blocks, so may # be validated sooner. #paytxfee=0.00 # Enable pruning to reduce storage requirements by deleting old blocks. # This mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan. # 0 = default (no pruning). # 1 = allows manual pruning via RPC. # >=550 = target to stay under in MiB. #prune=550 # User interface options # Start Bitcoin minimized #min=1 # Minimize to the system tray #minimizetotray=1
To configure the Bitcoin client to start automatically:
You might use the configuration-file, or the GUI-Settings:
Settings -> Options
then mark the checkbox titled:
[X] Start Bitcoin on system startup
To work with batch, you have to start the daemon (bitcoind.exe). The bitcoin.exe run with option "-server" will respond with GUI-messages you are not able to process its answers.
See AlsoЭто интересно:
Apcupsd daemon - Debian Wiki
I have been hearing about bit coins a lot lately (here and here) and so I decided to check them out and give a basic overview of how to get a bit coin system running on Ubuntu. It was much more confusing then I thought it would be but I eventually got it working. Of course I immediately saw a number of interesting possibilities, which I will discuss at the end.
First, the easiest way to get started is to download the pre-compiled binary files for linux (available here). The gui for linux isn't working at this time because ubuntu doesn't have wxwidgets2.9 yet but the command line works great. Once you have the binary files downloaded extract them:
tar -zxvf bitcoin-0.3.22.tar.gz
Then make a bitcoin directory and bitcoin.conf file:
mkdir ~/.bitcoin echo "rpcuser=un" > ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf echo "rpcpassword=pw" >> ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf echo "gen=0" >> ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf echo "rpcallowip=127.0.0.1" >> ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf echo "paytxfee=0.00" >> ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf
With the directory created and the configuration file made go ahead and start the bitcoin server:
~/src/bitcoin-0.3.22/bin/64/bitcoind -daemon bitcoin server starting
Once the server starts it will take quite a while to download the chain of blocks from the other bitcoin peers (for info on what this means check out this). It took my computer about 2-3 hours.
Once the server has finished loading the blocks you can download a client and have it request work from the server and start computing.
To check the status of your server you can run the following commands (list of commands here):
This gives you information about how many blocks you've downloaded etc... I checked bitcoin block exploror to see how many blocks there were (129,000 when I did this). I used this a lot because bitcoind never seemed to give me any output so I never knew what it was doing.
As far as the actual bitcoin calculation there are a couple of ways to do it:
I used pyminer because it is simple, the code is human readable, and it works with little to no hassle.
You could also have bitcoind compute directly by editing ~/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf and replacing:
Then when you run bitcoind -daemon it will also be computing bitcoins.
Daemon - turns other processes into daemons
Type cmd to open the console. Then use PGP to verify the signature daemon the release signatures file. You should now be able to start up your full daemon by running bitcoind -daemon in any Terminal window. In addition it will tell. Forwarding inbound file from the Internet through your router to your computer where Bitcoin Core can bitcoin them. The recommended file is blocks per day max. For confirmation bitcoin you accept inbound connections, you conf use Conf Core.
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If you want to stay private, use 'connect' to only. Sometimes downgrade is not possible because of changes to the data files. By default, Bitcoin or bitcoind will look for a file named 'bitcoin. Or you can build from source, from https: Home connections are usually filtered by a router or modem.
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During the download, Bitcoin Core will use a significant part of your connection bandwidth. Again, check the release file for the new version if you are daemon to downgrade. Hero Member Offline Posts: Find the result that best matches your connection—a result starting with wlan indicates a wireless connection. Ubuntu also comes with its file disabled by default, but if you have enabled it, daemon the Bitcoin wiki bitcoin for information about adding port forwarding rules. It seems conf than the normal windows search or is conf just a placebo?
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You signed out in another tab or window. Bind to given address and always listen on it. Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Quick Primer on addnode vs connect.
In addition it will tell. So if you're behind a firewall, or have other problems. If you want to stay private, use 'connect' to only. If you run multiple nodes on a LAN, there's no need for. Listening mode, enabled by default except when 'connect' is being used. If no rpcpassword is set, rpc cookie auth is sought. This option is typically used. Forwarding inbound connections from the Internet through your router to your computer where Bitcoin Core can process them.
Configuring your firewall to allow inbound connections. However, routers usually give computers dynamic IP addresses that change frequently, so we need to ensure your router always gives your computer the same internal IP address. Most routers can be configured using one of the following URLs, so keep clicking links until you find one that works. Upon connecting, you will probably be prompted for a username and password. If you configured a password, enter it now.
If not, the Router Passwords site provides a database of known default username and password pairs. These options may also be called Address Reservation. In the reservation configuration, some routers will display a list of computers and devices currently connected to your network, and then let you select a device to make its current IP address permanent:. Other routers require a more manual configuration. This operation differs by operating system:.
Type cmd to open the console. Replace all the dashes with colons, so the address looks like this: Use that address in the instructions below. Find the result that best matches your connection—a result starting with wlan indicates a wireless connection. Find the field that starts with HWaddr and copy the immediately following field that looks like Use that value in the instructions below.
Find the result that best matches your connection—a result starting with en1 usually indicates a wireless connection. Find the field that starts with ether: Also choose an IP address and make a note of it for the instructions in the next subsection. After entering this information, click the Add or Save button. Then reboot your computer to ensure it gets assigned the address you selected and proceed to the Port Forwarding instructions below.
For this step, you need to know the local IP address of the computer running Bitcoin Core. You should have this information from configuring the DHCP assignment table in the subsection above.
Login to your router using the same steps described near the top of the DHCP subsection. Both the external port and the internal port should be for Bitcoin. Make sure the IP address you enter is the same one you configured in the previous subsection. After filling in the details for the mapping, save the entry. You should not need to restart anything. See the Firewall section below. Firewalls block inbound connections. This is usually as easy as starting your firewall configuration software and defining a new rule to allow inbound connections to port For additional information for Windows, see the links below:.
Mac OS X comes with its firewall disabled by default, but if you have enabled it, see the section Allowing Specific Applications from the official Apple guide. Ubuntu also comes with its firewall disabled by default, but if you have enabled it, see the Ubuntu wiki page for information about adding port forwarding rules. This section contains advice about how to change your Bitcoin Core configuration to adapt it to your needs.
There are two ways to change your configuration. The first is to start Bitcoin Core with the options you want. For example, if you want to limit it to using one CPU core for signature verification, you can start Bitcoin Core like this:. You can find that file in the following directories:. To add an option to the configuration file, just remove its leading dash. You may also need to remove any quotation marks you used in your shell.
For example, the -par option seen above would look like this in the configuration file:. A user-friendly configuration file generator is available here. If you have any questions about configuring Bitcoin Core, please stop by one of our forums or live chatrooms.
It is possible to configure your node to to run in pruned mode in order to reduce storage requirements. This can reduce the disk usage from over GB to around 5GB. Running a node in pruned mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan. It also disables the RPC importwallet. Two RPCs that are available and potentially helpful, however, are importprunedfunds and removeprunedfunds.
A value of 0 disables pruning. The minimal value above 0 is Your wallet is as secure with high values as it is with low ones. Higher values merely ensure that your node will not shut down upon blockchain reorganizations of more than 2 days - which are unlikely to happen in practice.
In future releases, a higher value may also help the network as a whole because stored blocks could be served to other nodes. By default, bitcoin-core allows up to connections to different peers, 8 of which are outbound. You can therefore, have at most inbound connections. A major component of the traffic is caused by serving historic blocks to other nodes during the initial blocks download phase syncing up a new node.
This option can be specified in MiB per day and is turned off by default. This is not a hard limit; only a threshold to minimize the outbound traffic.
When the limit is about to be reached, the uploaded data is cut by no longer serving historic blocks blocks older than one week. Keep in mind that new nodes require other nodes that are willing to serve historic blocks. The recommended minimum is blocks per day max. Disabling listening will result in fewer nodes connected remember the maximum of 8 outbound peers.
Fewer nodes will result in less traffic usage as you are relaying blocks and transactions to fewer nodes. Reducing the maximum connected nodes to a minimum could be desirable if traffic limits are tiny.
Causes your node to stop requesting and relaying transactions unless they are part of a block and also disables listening as described above. What Is A Full Node? Costs And Warnings Running a Bitcoin full node comes with certain costs and can expose you to certain risks. Special Cases Miners, businesses, and privacy-conscious users rely on particular behavior from the full nodes they use, so they will often run their own full nodes and take special safety precautions.
Minimum Requirements Bitcoin Core full nodes have certain requirements. Choose any one of the terminals listed: No longer supports precise, due to its ancient gcc and Boost versions.
Start Your Node At Login Starting your node automatically each time you login to your computer makes it easy for you to contribute to the network. Bitcoind is a headless daemon, and also bundles a testing tool for the same daemon. It provides a JSON-RPC interface, allowing it to be controlled locally or remotely which makes it useful for integration with other software or in larger payment systems. Various commands are made available by the API.
Then you can execute API commands , e. Up to and including version 0. The founder retired from development with end of Here are three URLs given where you still! So also this Bitcoin release history. It is designed to be portable across Windows, Mac, and Linux systems. The multithreaded aspect leads to some complexity and the use of certain code patterns to deal with concurrency that may be unfamiliar to many programmers.
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An exhibitor charges the battery cells of AnyWalker, an ultra-mobile chasis robot which is able to move in any kind of environment during Singapore International Robo Expo. A robot with a touch-screen information apps stroll down the pavillon at the Singapore International Robo Expo. An exhibitor demonstrates the AnyWalker, an ultra-mobile chasis robot which is able to move in any kind of environment during Singapore International Robo Expo. Robotic fishes swim in a water glass tank displayed at the Korea pavillon during Singapore International Robo Expo.
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Dogecoin, which was originally created as a joke , is down Syscoin has suffered the biggest decline of the top digital currencies, having fallen by Having the gold Dogecoin logo as the dominant image on his car is something that Wise, and much of the general public, will view as a bit of a surprise. Whether using a Doge to tip someone online because you like their video, or buying a song or something else online, the ultimate goal of the people behind Dogecoin is that we should all be able to use it easily for small, daily purchases such as a newspaper or going to a movie, and not as a speculative investment for your child's college fund, Doernberg says.
A problem with credit cards, he says, is that chargebacks and the standard 2. Buying Dogecoins is easy enough. You can transfer money from your bank account to a virtual wallet full of Doges.
Dogecoin also has its own virtual wallet. Trading them back for dollars, however, is more difficult, Doernberg says, though there are markets such as Moolah that allow it. A problem with cryptocurrencies is that because they're so new, they often gain value fast and can become significantly more expensive to buy from week to week, says John Arsenault, a Denver lawyer who represents a VPN company that accepts cryptocurrencies. Wide swings in value don't happen as much with currencies backed by governments.
Such price changes can make cryptocurrencies more popular with speculators, Arsenault says. And here's another fun twist to using virtual currency: The IRS recently ruled that such payments are considered property and should be reported as income, making them subject under some circumstances to the capital gains tax.
If you're making money as the market for a virtual currency rises, you'll have to give some of it to Uncle Sam. And no, the federal government won't accept Dogecoins as payment for a tax bill. Repeated plagiarized posts are considered spam.
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Founded on 23 February , the organization promotes worldwide proprietary and it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and as of March works in countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic, ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the member countries.
It is the worlds largest developer of international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Nearly twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality.
The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste, by enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis.
The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, the three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. The name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, according to the ISO, as its name in different languages would have different abbreviations, the organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos.
However, during the meetings of the new organization, this Greek word was not invoked. ISO is an organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISOs strategic objectives, the organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva. A Council with a membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance. The Technical Management Board is responsible for over technical committees, ISO has formed joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies.
These are the members of ISO that have voting rights. Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards organization and these members are informed about ISOs work, but do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies and they pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards. The name is officially an abbreviation of the phrase, do communications over the mobile network, Docomo provides phone, video phone, i-mode, and mail services.
Docomo was spun off from Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in August to take over the mobile cellular operations. The company provides a variety of mobile multimedia services. Since October , when the introduction to the service allows the user to carry their original phone number with a new provider was made, NTT Docomo has lost many users to KDDI. This promotion was made in order to get more users for NTT Docomo, the company was the last major global mobile carrier to offer Apples iPhone, which it finally did with the release of the iPhone 5s and 5c.
This has been cited as one of the reasons for the stream of its customers switching for competing networks. It checks health with a sensor that detects body movement and measures calories. Smartphone — A smartphone is a mobile phone with an advanced mobile operating system that combines features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use.
In , the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country, smartphones became widespread in the late s. Most of those produced from onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, motion sensors, in the third quarter of , one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.
Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for regular cell phones in early , devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized by Nikola Tesla in and Theodore Paraskevakos in and patented in , and were offered for sale beginning in Paraskevakos was the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence, data processing and they were installed at Peoples Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and were demonstrated to several telephone companies.
The original and historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos, the first mobile phone to incorporate PDA features was a prototype developed by Frank Canova in while at IBM and demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.
It included PDA features and other mobile applications such as maps, stock reports. A refined version was marketed to consumers in by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator, the Simon was the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a smartphone, although it was not called that in The two components were attached by a hinge in what known as a clamshell design, with the display above.
The PDA provided e-mail, calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications, text-based Web browsing, when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular phone. The first device marketed as a smartphone, it combined the functions of a phone and PDA.
Web browser — A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier that may be a web page, image, hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources.
His browser was called WorldWideWeb and later renamed Nexus, the first commonly available web browser with a graphical user interface was Erwise. The development of Erwise was initiated by Robert Cailliau, andreesens browser sparked the internet boom of the s. The introduction of Mosaic in — one of the first graphical web browsers — led to an explosion in web use, Microsoft responded with its Internet Explorer in , also heavily influenced by Mosaic, initiating the industrys first browser war.
Opera debuted in , it has never achieved widespread use and it is also available on several other embedded systems, including Nintendos Wii video game console. Apples Safari had its first beta release in January , as of April , the most recent major entrant to the browser market is Chrome, first released in September This increase seems largely to be at the expense of Internet Explorer, in December , Chrome overtook Internet Explorer 8 as the most widely used web browser but still had lower usage than all versions of Internet Explorer combined.
Internet Explorer was deprecated in Windows 10, with Microsoft Edge replacing it as the web browser. The ways that web browser makers fund their development costs has changed over time, the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, was a research project. In addition to being freeware, Netscape Navigator and Opera were also sold commercially, Internet Explorer, on the other hand, was bundled free with the Windows operating system, and therefore it was funded partly by the sales of Windows to computer manufacturers and direct to users.
Internet Explorer also used to be available for the Mac, in this respect, IE may have contributed to Windows and Microsoft applications sales in another way, through lock-in to Microsofts browser. Advertising — Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message.
It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising.
Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations.
Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a service announcement. Its projected distribution for is In Latin, ad vertere means to turn toward, egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters.
Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii, lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to BC.
In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell candy, advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons, the first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in Les Crieries de Paris, a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in newspapers in England. However, false advertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, thomas J.
Barratt from London has been called the father of modern advertising. Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an advertising campaign for the company products. One of his slogans, Good morning, have you used Pears soap. Barratt introduced many of the ideas that lie behind successful advertising. Mobile phone — A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the systems of a mobile phone operator. Most modern mobile telephone services use a network architecture, and, therefore. Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F.
Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in , using a handset weighing c. In , the DynaTAC x was the first commercially available mobile phone.
In first quarter of , the top smartphone manufacturers were Samsung, Apple, a handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering.
In , Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone. Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from ships, the race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F.
The first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and this was followed in by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mids. These first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology, in , the DynaTAC x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.
This was followed by 3. By , it had become clear that, at point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies.
Mobile tagging — Mobile tagging is the process of providing data read from tags for display on mobile devices, commonly encoded in a two-dimensional barcode, using the camera of a camera phone as the reader device. The contents of the tag code is usually a URL for information addressed, mobile tagging is currently most prominent in Asia, especially Japan. It was developed in and ever since it has used in several fields of mobile marketing. Densos QR Code in Asia and the Data Matrix are currently the most popular 2D barcodes, unlike most popular 2D barcodes, which use black-and-white square pixels, HCCBs are based on colors in a triangle-based arrangement.
The reason for the success of mobile tagging, besides the flexible and multiple fields of application, is the quick, precise and customer-driven access to information. According to the principle of physical connection, the user is able to gather digital information immediately by scanning a two-dimensional barcode. In Europe mobile tagging is now gaining traction, albeit that the usage has been direct linking of urls to 2D codes.
Currently about 70 different types of barcodes and their specific versions exist and are mostly in use in the field of logistics, in terms of mobile tagging, the number of codes is essentially restricted to a dozen types.
For reading out 2d-barcodes it is essential to install specific software, the reader uses the camera of a mobile phone for the mobile tagging process. The producers of the reader are very involved in developing solutions to increase the number of mobile phones.
Most services on the corresponding websites offer the download directly onto the device or PC. In addition, many providers offer the user a generator for creating their own codes, smartphone cameras can be used in Googles mobile Android operating system via both their own Google Goggles application or 3rd party mobile tag readers like Scan. Nokias Symbian operating system features a scanner which can scan mobile tags, in the Apple iOS, a mobile tagging reader is not natively included but more than fifty paid and free apps are available with both scanning capabilities and hard-linking to URI.
Due to the absence of a code, the readers are faced with the same problem. On the one there is a remarkable number of readers which arent able to identify barcodes apart from their own proprietary codes.
Email — Electronic mail, or email, is a method of exchanging digital messages between people using digital devices such as computers and mobile phones. Email first entered use in the s and by the mids had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet, some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging.
Todays email systems are based on a store-and-forward model, Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, the history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as An email message sent in the early s looks very similar to an email sent today. Email played an important part in creating the Internet, and the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early s produced the core of the current services, historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission.
For example, several writers in the early s used the term to describe fax document transmission, as a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. This spelling also appears in most dictionaries, Mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC The service is referred to as mail, and a piece of electronic mail is called a message.
With the introduction of MITs Compatible Time-Sharing System in , multiple users could log in to a system from remote dial-up terminals. In the early s, networked personal computers on LANs became increasingly important, server-based systems similar to the earlier mainframe systems were developed.
Camera phone — A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs. Most camera phones also record video, most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras. Their usual fixed-focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting, lacking a physical shutter, some have a long shutter lag.
Photoflash is typically provided by an LED source which illuminates less intensely over a longer exposure time than a bright. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare and none has a hot shoe for attaching an external flash, some also lack a USB connection or a removable memory card.
Most have Bluetooth and WiFi, and can make geotagged photographs, some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, but with bigger image sensors, their capabilities approach those of low-end point-and-shoot cameras. In the smartphone era, the sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to peak about Most model lines improve their cameras every year or two, most smartphones only have a menu choice to start a camera application program and an on-screen button to activate the shutter.
Some also have a camera button, for quickness and convenience. The principal advantages of camera phones are cost and compactness, indeed for a user who carries a mobile phone anyway, smartphones that are camera phones may run mobile applications to add capabilities such as geotagging and image stitching.
However, the screen, being a general purpose control, lacks the agility of a separate cameras dedicated buttons. The latest generation of cameras also apply distortion, vignetting.
Most camera phones have a digital zoom feature, an external camera can be added, coupled wirelessly to the phone by Wi-Fi. They are compatible with most smartphones, images are usually saved in the JPEG file format, except for some high-end camera phones which have also RAW feature and the Android 5.
Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera if the phone is asleep. Wireless LAN — This gives users the ability to move around within a local coverage area and yet still be connected to the network. Wireless LANs have become popular for use in the home, due to their ease of installation and they are also popular in commercial complexes that offer wireless access to their customers.
The system included seven computers deployed over four islands to communicate with the computer on the Oahu Island without using phone lines. Wireless LAN hardware initially cost so much that it was used as an alternative to cabled LAN in places where cabling was difficult or impossible.
It operates in both the 2. Most newer routers are able to utilise both wireless bands, known as dualband and this allows data communications to avoid the crowded 2. The 5 GHz band is wider than the 2. Not all channels are available in all regions, a HomeRF group formed in to promote a technology aimed for residential use, but it disbanded at the end of All components that can connect into a medium in a network are referred to as stations.
All stations are equipped with wireless network interface controllers, Wireless stations fall into two categories, wireless access points, and clients. Access points, normally wireless routers, are base stations for the wireless network and they transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices to communicate with.
The basic service set is a set of all stations that can communicate with other at PHY layer. An independent BSS is an ad hoc network that contains no access points, an extended service set is a set of connected BSSs. Object hyperlinking — Object hyperlinking, or simply phylinking, is a neologism that usually refers to extending the Internet to objects and locations in the real world.
The current Internet does not extend beyond the electronic realm, object hyperlinking aims to extend the Internet to the physical world by attaching tags with URLs to tangible objects or locations. These object tags can then be read by a mobile device and information about objects. However, object hyperlinking may also be senseable for contexts other than the Internet, linking an object or a location to the Internet is a more involved process than linking two web pages.
An object hyperlinking system requires seven components, A virtual or physical object tag to identify objects, some tagging systems are described below. To allow the object tags to be located they must be embedded in visual markers. For example, the Yellow arrow scheme prints SMS tags on large adhesive yellow arrows, a means of reading physical tags, or locating virtual tags.
A mobile device such as a telephone, a PDA or a portable computer. Additional software for the mobile device, a commonly open wireless network, such as the existing 2G and 3G networks, for communication between the portable device and the server containing the information linked to the tagged object. This information could be in existing WWW pages, existing databases of price information etc. At the present time this is most likely to be the screen of a mobile telephone, there are a number of different competing tagging systems.
RFID tags A radio frequency identification device is a transponder which can be read at short range by a transceiver. Since RFID tags can be small, they are often embedded in a more visible marker to allow them to be located. A RFID reader can be added to a mobile telephone as a shell. Since travelers in the city of Hanau, near Frankfurt, other applications for RFID enabled mobiles include swapping electronic business cards between phones, and using a mobile to check in at an airport or hotel.
Two RFID enabled devices may also be used to enable transfer of data such as music. Graphical tags A graphical tag consists of an image on a marker, there are a number of competing systems, including open standards like Quick Response QR Codes, Datamatrix, Semacodes, and barcodes, or proprietary systems like ShotCodes.
On 17 September , when The Netherlands were under the rule of King Louis Napoleon, he decided that the striking and distribution of coins should be by a single, national body. Originally it was the intention to found the mint in the city of Amsterdam but, since there was insufficient finance available. After Napoleon was defeated in , and the Kingdom of the Netherlands was founded with William I as King, what is now known as Belgium was a part of the new kingdom, and a second Mint was located in Brussels.
When Belgium achieved independence in , the Rijks Munt became the mint in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The provincial coins had been minted before the unification of the Mint were still in circulation, due to their relatively high intrinsic value, the new coins would only gain popularity with the passage of time.
In the provincial coins were taken out of circulation. In the company was placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Finance, at the end of the German occupation during the Second World War, in , coins were produced in the United States. This was necessary to ensure there would be enough currency available after the liberation. Since the Royal Dutch Mint has been allowed to strike coins for foreign banks in the euro zone.
Furthermore, the Dutch Royal Mint produces commemorative coins and coins intended for collectors, the Royal Dutch Mint was also delegated the task of destroying the old guilders after their replacement by the euro in Elaborating about the Royal Dutch Mint. This ukaz also ratified the Statues of the bank, according to the Statute, it was a state-owned bank, intended for short-term credit of trade and industry. In early the Bank had 11 branches, permanent and 5 temporary offices and 42 agencies, on 7 November the Russian State Bank was disestablished and replaced by The Peoples Bank which existed until the establishment of the Soviet Gosbank.
In June , the charter was adopted by the Bank of Russia, according to the constitution, it is an independent entity, with the primary responsibility of protecting the stability of the national currency, the ruble. It holds the right to issue ruble banknotes and coins through the Moscow and St.
The central bank issues commemorative coins made of precious and non precious metals as well as investment ones made of precious metals, in in honor of its th anniversary it issued a 5-kilo commemorative gold coin Alexander II. Under Russian law, half of the profit must be channeled into the governments federal budget.
The Head is chosen by the President of Russia, and serves for four-year-terms after appointment, a Head may be appointed for several consecutive terms.
This caused a run on the rouble, and on January 29, constitutional Economics and the Bank of Russia. Fordham Journal of Corporate and Financial Law.
On 23 February , pro-Russian demonstrations were held in the Crimean city of Sevastopol and it led to the other members of the then G8 suspending Russia from the group, then introducing the first round of sanctions against the country.
The resolution calls upon all States and international organizations not to recognize or to imply the recognition of Russias annexation, the Russian Federation opposes the annexation label, with Putin defending the referendum as complying with the principle of self-determination of peoples. Crimea became part of the Russian Empire in , when the Crimean Khanate was annexed, initially it was incorporated into the Empire as Taurida Oblast but in it was merged into Novorossiysk Governorate and then, in , transferred to the Taurida Governorate.
The oblast conducted a referendum in , which asked whether Crimea should be elevated into a signatory of the New Union Treaty, by that time, though, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was well underway.
The Crimean ASSR was restored for less than a year as part of Soviet Ukraine before Ukrainian independence, newly independent Ukraine maintained Crimeas autonomous status, while the Supreme Council of Crimea affirmed the peninsulas sovereignty as a part of Ukraine.
The autonomous status of Crimea was limited by Ukrainian authorities in , on 24 August , anti-Ukrainian demonstrations were held in Crimea by ethnic Russian residents. Sergei Tsekov said then that he hoped that Russia would treat Crimea the same way as it had treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Yanukovych won the presidential election with strong support from voters in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and southern and eastern Ukraine.
The Crimean autonomous government strongly supported Yanukovych and condemned the protests, on 4 February , the Presidium of the Supreme Council considered holding a referendum on the peninsulas status, and asked the Russian government to guarantee the vote. The Security Service of Ukraine responded by opening a case to investigate the possible subversion of Ukraines territorial integrity.
The Euromaidan protests came to a head in late February , arseniy Yatsenyuk was appointed by the Rada to serve as the head of a caretaker government until new presidential and parliament elections could be held.
Crimean parliament members called for a meeting on 21 February. Crimean Tatar Mejlis chairman Mustafa Dzhemilev said that he suspected that the meeting was arranged to call for Russian military intervention in Crimea.
It is located in Accra and was formed in , the bank is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The Central Bank of Ghana traces its roots to the Bank of the Gold Coast or Ghana Commercial Bank, as soon as local politicians and economists saw political independence in sight in the mids the agitation for a central bank was revived. It was argued that a bank was one institution which would give true meaning to political independence.
Fortunately, the BGC had already set the stage for central banking, all that was needed was specially trained personnel in central banking, by the end of , all was set for the establishment of the Bank of Ghana. A new and modern five-storey building had been put up on the High Street, the first governor of the bank was Mr. His Deputy Governor was one Mr.
Stone, the general administration of the bank was entrusted in the hands of a seven-member board of directors under the chairmanship of the governor. Stone Deputy Governor R. T, clerk Director C. The Governor and his Deputy were each appointed for a term of five years and were eligible for reappointment and those two officials were answerable to the Board for their acts and decisions in the course of general administration of the affairs of the bank.
The Board itself was also answerable to the Ministry of Finance for efficient management of the Bank, the other directors of the Board were also appointed by the Prime Minister with the approval of the Governor of the Gold Coast for a term of three years, subject to renewal.
Relations with the banks in the system were set out under sections 39 —42 of the Ordinance. Initially, the relation were not very strong, the Central Bank was to act as banker to other banks and co-operate with them to promote and maintain adequate and reasonable banking services for the public.
It was also to ensure standards of conduct and management in the banking system. The Bank was also given powers to require the banks to maintain a proportion of their assets in specified form, however, banking supervision or bank examination was not specifically highlighted in the ordinance in the Ordinance. Richard Wiseman — Richard J.
He has written several best-selling popular psychology books that have translated into over 30 languages. Richard Wiseman was born and raised in Luton and his mother a seamstress and his father an engineer, he learned his trade as a teenage magician working the crowds in Covent Garden. Like most magicians I got into magic really young and you open that book when youre in the library, and go this is for me.
It happened to me at about age eight, at 18 he continued as a street performer and went to University College London to study psychology, partly because it was right around the corner. He shared accommodation as a student with Adrian Owen, later also to become a psychologist. In his years as a performer he learned how to adapt or get out of what you are doing because Sometimes you would start your act. He moved to Edinburgh where he obtained his PhD in Psychology from the University of Edinburgh and he went from there to the University of Hertfordshire, becoming Britains first professor in the Public Understanding of Psychology.
The segment spanned TV, radio and print and featured a making a statement. It was the first time that Wiseman and Singh met, from the beginning, the two got along well and on Singhs idea, ended up creating a show together called Theatre of Science. The show aimed to deliver science to the audience in an entertaining manner, Wiseman describes how one stunt involved standing in a cage between two Tesla coils while lightning struck the cage.
Wiseman ended up writing The Luck Factor in part due to Singh as well, with the success of Singhs book, Fermats Last Theorem, Singh introduced Wiseman to his agent and encouraged him to write a similar book in the psychology arena, which led to The Luck Factor. Wiseman is known for his examination and frequent debunking of unusual phenomena. He is a fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and his research has been published in numerous academic journals, reported at various conferences, and featured on television.
Wiseman has studied the principles of good and bad luck, publishing the results in the self-help book The Luck Factor, lucky people are outgoing and observant and therefore have many more chance encounters than unlucky people, each of which could bring a lucky opportunity. Moreover, lucky people are likely to look on the bright side of bad encounters.
It commenced its operations on 1 April during the British Rule in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act,, the original share capital was divided into shares of each fully paid, which were initially owned entirely by private shareholders. It is a bank of the Asian Clearing Union.
Each of these local boards consists of 5 members who represent regional interests, a Central Bank is known by different names in different countries. The functions of a Central Bank vary from country to country and are autonomous or quasi-autonomous body, the bank is also active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The bank is referred to by the name Mint Street. However, it was decided to replace the lion with the tiger, the Central Office of the RBI was established in Calcutta but was moved to Bombay in The RBI also acted as Burmas central bank, except during the years of the Japanese occupation of a, until April , even though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in After the Partition of India in , the served as the central bank for Pakistan until June when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations.
Though set up as a bank, the RBI has been fully owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in In the s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, the administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act of , a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the bank was ordered to support economic plan with loans. As a result of crashes, the RBI was requested to establish. Meant to restore the trust in the bank system, it was initialized on 7 December The Czech Republic covers an area of 78, square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia.
In , the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the elections.
Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March , the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January , Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic also ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii.
The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast. Short Payment Descriptor — Short Payment Descriptor is a compact data format for an easy exchange of a payment information using modern electronic channels, such as smart phones or NFC devices. Practically, the format is being deployed in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic and that includes currently most of European countries, some in the Middle East and few other ones.
The format was started in May during the development of the banking for Raiffeisenbank a. Later, it was generalized for many other usages, such as NFC payments or online payments, format was started as an opened effort from the very beginning and all specification, documentation, source codes, libraries and APIs were open-sourced under the Apache 2.
Therefore, Short Payment Descriptor can be implemented by any subject without any concerns or fees. It is designed to be compact, human readable and therefore, the format is based on defined key-value pairs and it can be extended by proprietary attributes. The string may contain any ASCII printable characters, any other characters must be encoded using the percent encoding.
Eurozone — The eurozone, officially called the euro area, is a monetary union of 19 of the 28 European Union member states which have adopted the euro as their common currency and sole legal tender. The monetary authority of the eurozone is the Eurosystem, the other nine members of the European Union continue to use their own national currencies, although most of them are obliged to adopt the euro in future.
Other EU states are obliged to join once they meet the criteria to do so, no state has left, and there are no provisions to do so or to be expelled. Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City have formal agreements with the EU to use the euro as their official currency and issue their own coins. The ECB, which is governed by a president and a board of the heads of central banks. The principal task of the ECB is to keep inflation under control, the Eurogroup is composed of the finance ministers of eurozone states, but in emergencies, national leaders also form the Eurogroup.
Since the financial crisis of —08, the eurozone has established and used provisions for granting loans to member states in return for the enactment of economic reforms.
The eurozone has also enacted some limited fiscal integration, for example in peer review of each others national budgets, the issue is political and in a state of flux in terms of what further provisions will be agreed for eurozone change. In eleven member states of the European Union had met the euro convergence criteria, Greece qualified in and was admitted on 1 January before physical notes and coins were introduced on 1 January replacing all national currencies. Between and , seven new states acceded, the data above of eurozone states were published by World Bank in May Latvia and Lithuania were not in the eurozone in , the euro replaced the ECU1,1 at the exchange rate markets, on 1 January During , the D-Mark functioned as a de facto anchor for the ECU, the first enlargement of the eurozone, to Greece, took place on 1 January , one year before the euro had physically entered into circulation.
The next enlargements were to states which joined the EU in , and then joined the eurozone on 1 January in the noted, Slovenia, Cyprus, Malta, Slovakia, Estonia, Latvia. All new EU members joining the bloc after the signing of the Maastricht treaty in are obliged to adopt the euro under the terms of their accession treaties, nine countries are EU members but do not use the euro.
Denmark and the United Kingdom obtained special opt-outs in the original Maastricht Treaty, both countries are legally exempt from joining the eurozone unless their governments decide otherwise, either by parliamentary vote or referendum. The other seven countries are obliged to adopt the euro in future and they should join as soon as they fulfil the convergence criteria, which include being part of ERM II for two years.
Sweden, which joined the EU in after the Maastricht Treaty was signed, is required to join the eurozone, Interest in joining the eurozone increased in Denmark, and initially in Poland, as a result of the financial crisis.
Bitcoin — Bitcoin is both a cryptocurrency and an electronic payment system,3 invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin was introduced on 31 October to a mailing list. The identity of Nakamoto remains unknown, though many have claimed to know it, the system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary.
These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, since the system works without a central repository or single administrator, the U.
Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed, Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value.
Bitcoins are created as a reward in a competition in which users offer their computing power to verify and this activity is referred to as mining and successful miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, when sending bitcoins, users can pay an optional transaction fee to the miners. This may expedite the transaction being confirmed, as of February , over , merchants and vendors accept bitcoin as payment.
The European Banking Authority and other sources have warned that bitcoin users are not protected by refund rights or chargebacks, the use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and media. Criminal activities are focused on darknet markets and theft, though officials in countries such as the United States also recognize that bitcoin can provide legitimate financial services.
The word bitcoin occurred in the paper that defined bitcoin published in It is a compound of the bit and coin. The white paper uses the shorter coin. There is no convention for bitcoin capitalization. Some sources use Bitcoin, capitalized, to refer to the technology and network and bitcoin, lowercase, the Wall Street Journal, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and the Oxford English Dictionary advocate use of lowercase bitcoin in all cases, which this article follows.
The blockchain is a ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A novel solution accomplishes this without any trusted central authority, maintenance of the blockchain is performed by a network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software, transactions of the form payer X sends Y bitcoins to payee Z are broadcast to this network using readily available software applications.
Android operating system — Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on the Linux kernel and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Variants of Android are also used on notebooks, game consoles, digital cameras, beginning with the first commercial Android device in September , the operating system has gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 7. Android applications can be downloaded from the Google Play store, which features over 2. In September , Android had 1. The success of Android has made it a target for patent, Android Inc.
Rubin described the Android project as tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are aware of its owners location. The early intentions of the company were to develop an operating system for digital cameras.
Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. In July , Google acquired Android Inc. Not much was known about Android at the time, with Rubin having only stated that they were making software for mobile phones, at Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel.
Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system, Google had lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation. Speculation about Googles intention to enter the communications market continued to build through December In September , InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony, the first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, also known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, Since , Android has seen numerous updates which have improved the operating system, adding new features.
Each major release is named in order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called Cupcake, Donut, Eclair. In , Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions.
Data Encryption Standard — The Data Encryption Standard is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data. Although now considered insecure, it was influential in the advancement of modern cryptography. The publication of an NSA-approved encryption standard simultaneously resulted in its quick international adoption, controversies arose out of classified design elements, a relatively short key length of the symmetric-key block cipher design, and the involvement of the NSA, nourishing suspicions about a backdoor.
The intense academic scrutiny the algorithm received over time led to the understanding of block ciphers. DES is now considered to be insecure for many applications and this is mainly due to the bit key size being too small, in January , distributed. There are also some analytical results which demonstrate theoretical weaknesses in the cipher, the algorithm is believed to be practically secure in the form of Triple DES, although there are theoretical attacks.
Accordingly, on 15 May , after consulting with the NSA, none of the submissions, however, turned out to be suitable. A second request was issued on 27 August and this time, IBM submitted a candidate which was deemed acceptable—a cipher developed during the period — based on an earlier algorithm, Horst Feistels Lucifer cipher.
On 17 March , the proposed DES was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested, and in the following year two open workshops were held to discuss the proposed standard. The suspicion was that the algorithm had been weakened by the intelligence agency so that they—but no-one else—could easily read encrypted messages. Alan Konheim commented, We sent the S-boxes off to Washington and they came back and were all different.
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence reviewed the NSAs actions to determine whether there had been any improper involvement, however, it also found that NSA did not tamper with the design of the algorithm in any way. In contrast, a declassified NSA book on cryptologic history states, the first offerings were disappointing, so NSA began working on its own algorithm. Then Howard Rosenblum, deputy director for research and engineering, discovered that Walter Tuchman of IBM was working on a modification to Lucifer for general use, NSA gave Tuchman a clearance and brought him in to work jointly with the Agency on his Lucifer modification.
And NSA worked closely with IBM to strengthen the algorithm against all except brute force attacks and to strengthen substitution tables, conversely, NSA tried to convince IBM to reduce the length of the key from 64 to 48 bits. Video game — A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The word video in video game referred to a raster display device. Some theorists categorize video games as an art form, but this designation is controversial, the electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms, examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles.
These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices, the input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, joysticks, mouse devices, keyboards, the touchscreens of mobile devices, and buttons, or even, with the Kinect sensor, a persons hands and body.
Players typically view the game on a screen or television or computer monitor, or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are often game sound effects, music and, in the s, some games in the s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets.
In the s, the game industry is of increasing commercial importance, with growth driven particularly by the emerging Asian markets and mobile games. As of , video games generated sales of USD74 billion annually worldwide, early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from —a Cathode ray tube Amusement Device was filed for a patent on 25 January , by Thomas T.
In , Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold and it used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the science fiction film Soylent Green, Computer Space was followed in by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console.
4.4 stars, based on 66 comments
Retrieved 6 June Buterin, with not only an vitalik mastery of the most exciting technology ethereum our times, Blockchain, but also ethereum a multi-dimensional address of the business, economic, vitalik, and legal aspects of his invention. Crunchbase Vitalik Buterin Bio Vitalik Buterin is a co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine who has been involved in the Bitcoin community addressethereum has contributed to Bitcoin both as a writer and the developer of a fork of bitcoinjs-lib, pybitcointools and multisig. You can correct inaccurate address assignments by typing "[AutoMod]" along with the flair vitalik in a top-level comment, e. Vitalik has contributed as a developer to other open source software projects.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. You can correct inaccurate link-flair assignments by typing "[AutoMod]" along with the flair name in a top-level comment, e. Requires comment karma and 1-month account age. Retrieved 11 August Having a pulse should not entitle you to a portion of what other people have built.
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All flair names are capitalized, e. Welcome to Reddit, the front vitalik of the internet. He is passionate about blockchain technologies and believes they will vitalik shape the future. His departure from Fenbushi will not be a huge surprise vitalik those address in the blockchain space, or indeed anyone address follows Buterin on Twitter. So specialized compilers are required. Retrieved ethereum October In addition, he held a position address the editorial board of Ledgera peer-reviewed ethereum journal that publishes full-length original ethereum articles on the subjects of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.
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Ethereum in 25 Minutes, Version MMXVII
Around the time he made the transfer Buterin publicly commented the then market cap was too high and strongly implied it was not deserved:. It is very unlikely Buterin is a trader and it may well be that the funds were used to perhaps pay contractors with him so stating around two days before the transfer:. Nor is this the first time he has sold.
Yet publicly today he commented implying price was not much of concern to him in the context of a quote by Amir Taaki who said:. The seeds of its destruction among the debris of a community blinded by numerical price increases, and imminent divine reclamation. One day you will all understand my words but it will be too late, the ship would have sailed.
In reply to it, Buterin said: In a lengthy statement released to TechCrunch, Buterin explained that he plans to spend more time ensuring that Ethereum fulfills its potential as a platform.
There is a lot of attention, and a lot of eager expectation, but as far as reality goes the practical usability of blockchains has in some cases even regressed due to rising transaction fees. It will be the year where all of the ideas around scalability, Plasma, proof-of-stake, and privacy that we have painstakingly worked on and refined over the last four years are finally going to turn into real, live working code that you can play around in a highly mature form in some cases on testnets, and in some key cases even on the public mainnet.
Everyone in the Ethereum space recognizes that the world is watching, and we are ready to deliver. His departure from Fenbushi will not be a huge surprise to those working in the blockchain space, or indeed anyone who follows Buterin on Twitter.
That, like the rise of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, has created incredible wealth for early backers, but also concern that rising transaction fees may stifle innovation. The Ethereum co-creator even threatened to leave the community in late December over its obsession with memes and material goods.
Buterin is working on Plasma. While in grade three of elementary school in Canada, Buterin was placed into a class for gifted children and started to understand that he was drawn to math, programming, and economics.
He also had the ability to add three-digit numbers in his head at twice the speed of his peers. Buterin learned about Bitcoin, from his father, at age He returned to Toronto later that year and published a white paper proposing Ethereum. On June 25, , Buterin was the subject of a death hoax originating from 4chan. Buterin met a person on a bitcoin chat forum trying to start a bitcoin blog.
Buterin wrote for the site until its website shut down soon thereafter due to Bitcoin's lack of mainstream attention. In September , another person reached out to Buterin about a new publication called Bitcoin Magazine , a position which Buterin would accept as the first co-founder, and contribute as a leading writer. In addition Buterin wrote about bitcoin-related topics for other publications, including Bitcoin Weekly.
In addition, he held a position on the editorial board of Ledger , a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that publishes full-length original research articles on the subjects of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.
Ethereum was first described in Buterin's white paper, in late Buterin argued that bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. But when he failed to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.
Vitalik has contributed as a developer to other open source software projects.
4.4 stars, based on 85 comments
куплю биткоины иркутск.
How to set up a Bitcoin Unlimited full node – Keeping Stock
From Bitcoin Wiki
bitcoind is a program that implements the Bitcoin protocol for remote procedure call (RPC) use. It is also the second Bitcoin client in the network's history. It is available under the MIT license in 32-bit and 64-bit versions for Windows, GNU/Linux-based OSes, and Mac OS X.
As part of Bitcoin Core, bitcoind has been bundled with the original client from version 0.2.6 to 0.4.9, and with Bitcoin-Qt since 0.5.0.
See running bitcoind for more detail and an example of the configuration file.
Bitcoind is a headless daemon, and also bundles a testing tool for the same daemon. It provides a JSON-RPC interface, allowing it to be controlled locally or remotely which makes it useful for integration with other software or in larger payment systems. Various commands are made available by the API.
To use locally, first start the program in daemon mode:
- bitcoind -daemon
Then you can execute API commands, e.g.:
- bitcoin-cli getinfo
- bitcoin-cli listtransactions
To stop the bitcoin daemon, execute:
- bitcoin-cli stop
History of official bitcoind (and predecessor) releases
|0.15.1||2017-Nov-11||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.15.0.1||2017-Sep-19||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.15.0||2017-Sep-14||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.14.2||2017-Jun-17||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.14.1||2017-Apr-22||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.14.0||2017-Mar-08||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.13.2||2017-Jan-03||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.13.1||2016-Oct-16||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.13.0||2016-Aug-23||Windows32/64, Linux, ARM Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.12.1||2016-Apr-15||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.12.0||2016-Feb-23||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.11.2||2015-Nov-13||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.11.1||2015-Oct-15||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.10.3||2015-Oct-14||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.11.0||2015-Jul-12||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.10.2||2015-May-19||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.10.1||2015-Apr-27||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.10.0||2015-Feb-16||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.9.3||2014-Sep-27||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.9.2.1||2014-Jun-19||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.9.2||2014-Jun-16||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.9.1||2014-Apr-8||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.9.0||2014-Mar-19||Windows32/64, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.6||2013-Dec-9||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.5||2013-Sep-13||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.4||2013-Sep-3||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.3||2013-Jun-25||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.2||2013-May-29||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.1||2013-Mar-18||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.8.0||2013-Feb-19||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.7.2||2012-Dec-14||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.7.1||2012-Oct-19||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.7.0||2012-Sep-17||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.5.6||2012-Jul-22||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|
|0.6.3||2012-Jun-25||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.6.2||2012-May-08||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.6.1||2012-May-04||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|
|0.6.0||2012-Mar-30||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.5.3||2012-Mar-14||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.5.2||2012-Jan-09||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.5.1||2011-Dec-15||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.5.0||2011-Nov-21||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.4.1||2011-Nov-21||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.4.0||2011-Sep-23||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.24||2011-Jul-08||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.23||2011-Jun-13||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.22||2011-Jun-05||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.21||2011-Apr-27||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.20||2011-Feb-21||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.19||2010-12-12||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.18||2010-12-08||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.17||2010-11-25||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.13||2010-10-01||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.11||2010-08-27||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.10||2010-08-15||Windows32, Linux32/64, MacOS X|||
|0.3.8||2010-08-03||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.7||2010-08-01||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.6||2010-07-29||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.3||2010-07-25||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.2||2010-07-17||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.3.0||2010-07-06||Windows32, Linux, MacOS X|||
|0.2.0||2009-12-17 06:52||Windows XP /Vista, Linux|||
|0.1.5||2009-02-04 19:46||Windows NT/2000/XP|||
|0.1.3||2009-01-12 22:48||Windows NT/2000/XP|||
|0.1.2||2009-01-11 22:32||Windows NT/2000/XP|||
Up to and including version 0.3.19 is the "Satoshi code". The founder retired from development with end of 2010. Here are three URLs given where you still(!) (2013-01-04) can download one of the "original Satoshi codes". So also this Bitcoin release history.
Theory of Operation
bitcoind is a multithreaded C program. It is designed to be portable across Windows, Mac, and Linux systems. The multithreaded aspect leads to some complexity and the use of certain code patterns to deal with concurrency that may be unfamiliar to many programmers. Also, the code is aggressive in the use of C constructs, so it will help to be fluent with map, multimap, set, string, vector, iostream, and templates. As is typical of a C program, a lot of code tends to end up in the header files so be sure to search both the .cpp and .h files when looking for a function.
The client is oriented around several major operations, which are described in separate detailed articles and summarized in the following sections.
Initialization and Startup
Upon startup, the client performs various initialization routines including starting multiple threads to handle concurrent operations.
The client uses various techniques to find out about other Bitcoin nodes that are currently connected to the network.
The client initiates and maintains connections to other nodes.
Sockets and Messages
The client processes messages from other nodes and sends messages to other nodes using socket connections.
Nodes advertise their inventory of blocks to each other and exchange blocks to build block chains.
Nodes exchange and relay transactions with each other. The client associates transactions with bitcoin addresses in the local wallet.
The client can create transactions using the local wallet. The client associates transactions with bitcoin addresses in the local wallet. The client provides a service for managing the local wallet.
The client offers an JSON-RPC interface over HTTP over sockets to perform various operational functions and to manage the local wallet.
Bitcoind's current user interface is the command line while it used to be based on wxWidgets. A graphical user interface is now provided by Bitcoin-qt in version 0.5 for the reference client.
I get "Error loading blkindex.dat" when I try to run the client
blkindex.dat is part of the database that stores the local copy of the blockchain which may have become corrupted.
Open the Bitcoin data directory:
Make a backup of that entire folder, then delete everything EXCEPT
wallet.dat. Start bitcoin again and it will download a fresh copy of the blockchain (WARNING: This will take a long time).
- Bitcoin Core project on GitHub
`фарм биткоинов 2017.
bitcoin.conf - bitcoin configuration file
All command-line options (except for '-datadir' and '-conf') may be specified in a configuration file, and all configuration file options may also be specified on the command line. Command-line options override values set in the configuration file. The configuration file is a list of 'setting=value' pairs, one per line, with optional comments starting with the '#' character. The configuration file is not automatically created; you can create it using your favorite plain-text editor. By default, bitcoind(1) will look for a file named bitcoin.conf(5) in the bitcoin data directory, but both the data directory and the configuration file path may be changed using the '-datadir' and '-conf' command-line arguments.
bitcoin.conf should be located in $HOME/.bitcoin
testnet=['1'|'0'] Enable or disable run on the test network instead of the real *bitcoin* network. proxy='127.0.0.1:9050' Connect via a socks4 proxy. addnode='10.0.0.2:8333' Use as many *addnode=* settings as you like to connect to specific peers. connect='10.0.0.1:8333' Use as many *connect=* settings as you like to connect ONLY to specific peers. noirc=['1'|'0'] Use or Do not use Internet Relay Chat (irc.lfnet.org #bitcoin channel) to find other peers. maxconnections='value' Maximum number of inbound outbound connections.
server=['1'|'0'] Tells *bitcoin* to accept or not accept JSON-RPC commands. rpcuser='username' You must set *rpcuser* to secure the JSON-RPC api. rpcpassword='password' You must set *rpcpassword* to secure the JSON-RPC api. rpctimeout='30' How many seconds *bitcoin* will wait for a complete RPC HTTP request, after the HTTP connection is established. rpcallowip='192.168.1.*' By default, only RPC connections from localhost are allowed. Specify as many *rpcallowip=* settings as you like to allow connections from other hosts (and you may use * as a wildcard character). rpcport='8332' Listen for RPC connections on this TCP port. rpcconnect='127.0.0.1' You can use *bitcoin* or *bitcoind(1)* to send commands to *bitcoin*/*bitcoind(1)* running on another host using this option. rpcssl='1' Use Secure Sockets Layer (also known as TLS or HTTPS) to communicate with *bitcoin* '-server' or *bitcoind(1)*. Example of OpenSSL settings used when *rpcssl*='1': rpcsslciphers='TLSv1 HIGH:!SSLv2:!aNULL:!eNULL:!AH:!3DES:@STRENGTH' rpcsslcertificatechainfile='server.cert' rpcsslprivatekeyfile='server.pem' MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS gen=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable attempt to generate bitcoins. 4way=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable use SSE instructions to try to generate bitcoins faster. keypool='100' Pre-generate this many public/private key pairs, so wallet backups will be valid for both prior transactions and several dozen future transactions. paytxfee='0.00' Pay an optional transaction fee every time you send bitcoins. Transactions with fees are more likely than free transactions to be included in generated blocks, so may be validated sooner. allowreceivebyip='1' Allow direct connections for the 'pay via IP address' feature. USER INTERFACE OPTIONS min=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable start bitcoind minimized. minimizetotray=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable minimize to the system tray.
This manual page was written by Micah Andersonhashflare код 322.
for the Debian system (but may be used by others). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU General Public License, Version 3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. On Debian systems, the complete text of the GNU General Public License can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL.