Unresponsive RPC server and RPC threads hanging · Issue . Bitcoin rpc threads

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From Bitcoin Wiki

There are two variations of the original bitcoin program available; one with a graphical user interface (usually referred to as just “Bitcoin”), and a 'headless' version (called bitcoind). They are completely compatible with each other, and take the same command-line arguments, read the same configuration file, and read and write the same data files. You can run one copy of either Bitcoin or bitcoind on your system at a time (if you accidently try to launch another, the copy will let you know that Bitcoin or bitcoind is already running and will exit).

Linux Quickstart

The simplest way to start from scratch with the command line client, automatically syncing blockchain and creating a wallet, is to just run this command (without arguments) from the directory containing your bitcoind binary:


To run with the standard GUI interface:


Command-line arguments

These commands are accurate as of Bitcoin Core version v0.14.0.

Command Description
-? Print this help message and exit
-version Print version and exit
-alertnotify= Execute command when a relevant alert is received or we see a really long fork (%s in cmd is replaced by message)
-blocknotify= Execute command when the best block changes (%s in cmd is replaced by block hash)
-assumevalid= If this block is in the chain assume that it and its ancestors are valid and potentially skip their script verification (0 to verify all, default: 00000000000000000013176bf8d7dfeab4e1db31dc93bc311b436e82ab226b90, testnet: 00000000000128796ee387cf110ccb9d2f36cffaf7f73079c995377c65ac0dcc)
-conf= Specify configuration file (default: bitcoin.conf)
-datadir= Specify data directory
-dbcache= Set database cache size in megabytes (4 to 16384, default: 300)
-loadblock= Imports blocks from external blk000??.dat file on startup
-maxorphantx= Keep at most unconnectable transactions in memory (default: 100)
-maxmempool= Keep the transaction memory pool below megabytes (default: 300)
-mempoolexpiry= Do not keep transactions in the mempool longer than hours (default: 336)
-blockreconstructionextratxn= Extra transactions to keep in memory for compact block reconstructions (default: 100)
-par= Set the number of script verification threads (-2 to 16, 0 = auto, <0 = leave that many cores free, default: 0)
-pid= Specify pid file (default:
-prune= Reduce storage requirements by enabling pruning (deleting) of old blocks. This allows the pruneblockchain RPC to be called to delete specific blocks, and enables automatic pruning of old blocks if a target size in MiB is provided. This mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan. Warning: Reverting this setting requires re-downloading the entire blockchain. (default: 0 = disable pruning blocks, 1 = allow manual pruning via RPC, >550 = automatically prune block files to stay under the specified target size in MiB)
-reindex-chainstate Rebuild chain state from the currently indexed blocks
-reindex Rebuild chain state and block index from the blk*.dat files on disk
-sysperms Create new files with system default permissions, instead of umask 077 (only effective with disabled wallet functionality)
-txindex Maintain a full transaction index, used by the getrawtransaction rpc call (default: 0)

Connection options:
-addnode= Add a node to connect to and attempt to keep the connection open
-banscore= Threshold for disconnecting misbehaving peers (default: 100)
-bantime= Number of seconds to keep misbehaving peers from reconnecting (default: 86400)
-bind= Bind to given address and always listen on it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6
-connect= Connect only to the specified node(s); -noconnect or -connect=0 alone to disable automatic connections
-discover Discover own IP addresses (default: 1 when listening and no -externalip or -proxy)
-dns Allow DNS lookups for -addnode, -seednode and -connect (default: 1)
-dnsseed Query for peer addresses via DNS lookup, if low on addresses (default: 1 unless -connect/-noconnect)
-externalip= Specify your own public address
-forcednsseed Always query for peer addresses via DNS lookup (default: 0)
-listen Accept connections from outside (default: 1 if no -proxy or -connect/-noconnect)
-listenonion Automatically create Tor hidden service (default: 1)
-maxconnections= Maintain at most connections to peers (default: 125)
-maxreceivebuffer= Maximum per-connection receive buffer, *1000 bytes (default: 5000)
-maxsendbuffer= Maximum per-connection send buffer, *1000 bytes (default: 1000)
-maxtimeadjustment Maximum allowed median peer time offset adjustment. Local perspective of time may be influenced by peers forward or backward by this amount. (default: 4200 seconds)
-onion= Use separate SOCKS5 proxy to reach peers via Tor hidden services (default: -proxy)
-onlynet= Only connect to nodes in network (ipv4, ipv6 or onion)
-permitbaremultisig Relay non-P2SH multisig (default: 1)
-peerbloomfilters Support filtering of blocks and transaction with bloom filters (default: 1)
-port= Listen for connections on (default: 8333 or testnet: 18333)
-proxy= Connect through SOCKS5 proxy
-proxyrandomize Randomize credentials for every proxy connection. This enables Tor stream isolation (default: 1)
-rpcserialversion Sets the serialization of raw transaction or block hex returned in non-verbose mode, non-segwit(0) or segwit(1) (default: 1)
-seednode= Connect to a node to retrieve peer addresses, and disconnect
-timeout= Specify connection timeout in milliseconds (minimum: 1, default: 5000)
-torcontrol=: Tor control port to use if onion listening enabled (default:
-torpassword= Tor control port password (default: empty)
-upnp= Use UPnP to map the listening port (default: 0)
-whitebind= Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6
-whitelist= Whitelist peers connecting from the given IP address (e.g. or CIDR notated network (e.g. Can be specified multiple times. Whitelisted peers cannot be DoS banned and their transactions are always relayed, even if they are already in the mempool, useful e.g. for a gateway
-whitelistrelay Accept relayed transactions received from whitelisted peers even when not relaying transactions (default: 1)
-whitelistforcerelay Force relay of transactions from whitelisted peers even if they violate local relay policy (default: 1)
-maxuploadtarget= Tries to keep outbound traffic under the given target (in MiB per 24h), 0 = no limit (default: 0)

Wallet options:
-disablewallet Do not load the wallet and disable wallet RPC calls
-keypool= Set key pool size to (default: 100)
-fallbackfee= A fee rate (in BTC/kB) that will be used when fee estimation has insufficient data (default: 0.0002)
-mintxfee= Fees (in BTC/kB) smaller than this are considered zero fee for transaction creation (default: 0.00001)
-paytxfee= Fee (in BTC/kB) to add to transactions you send (default: 0.00)
-rescan Rescan the block chain for missing wallet transactions on startup
-salvagewallet Attempt to recover private keys from a corrupt wallet on startup
-spendzeroconfchange Spend unconfirmed change when sending transactions (default: 1)
-txconfirmtarget= If paytxfee is not set, include enough fee so transactions begin confirmation on average within n blocks (default: 6)
-usehd Use hierarchical deterministic key generation (HD) after BIP32. Only has effect during wallet creation/first start (default: 1)
-walletrbf Send transactions with full-RBF opt-in enabled (default: 0)
-upgradewallet Upgrade wallet to latest format on startup
-wallet= Specify wallet file (within data directory) (default: wallet.dat)
-walletbroadcast Make the wallet broadcast transactions (default: 1)
-walletnotify= Execute command when a wallet transaction changes (%s in cmd is replaced by TxID)
-zapwallettxes= Delete all wallet transactions and only recover those parts of the blockchain through -rescan on startup (1 = keep tx meta data e.g. account owner and payment request information, 2 = drop tx meta data)

ZeroMQ notification options:
-zmqpubhashblock= Enable publish hash block in
-zmqpubhashtx= Enable publish hash transaction in
-zmqpubrawblock= Enable publish raw block in
-zmqpubrawtx= Enable publish raw transaction in

Debugging/Testing options:
-uacomment= Append comment to the user agent string
-debug= Output debugging information (default: 0, supplying is optional). If is not supplied or if = 1, output all debugging information. can be: addrman, alert, bench, cmpctblock, coindb, db, http, libevent, lock, mempool, mempoolrej, net, proxy, prune, rand, reindex, rpc, selectcoins, tor, zmq, qt.
-help-debug Show all debugging options (usage: --help -help-debug)
-logips Include IP addresses in debug output (default: 0)
-logtimestamps Prepend debug output with timestamp (default: 1)
-minrelaytxfee= Fees (in BTC/kB) smaller than this are considered zero fee for relaying, mining and transaction creation (default: 0.00001)
-maxtxfee= Maximum total fees (in BTC) to use in a single wallet transaction or raw transaction; setting this too low may abort large transactions (default: 0.10)
-printtoconsole Send trace/debug info to console instead of debug.log file
-shrinkdebugfile Shrink debug.log file on client startup (default: 1 when no -debug)

Chain selection options:
-testnet Use the test chain

Node relay options:
-bytespersigop Equivalent bytes per sigop in transactions for relay and mining (default: 20)
-datacarrier Relay and mine data carrier transactions (default: 1)
-datacarriersize Maximum size of data in data carrier transactions we relay and mine (default: 83)
-mempoolreplacement Enable transaction replacement in the memory pool (default: 1)

Block creation options:
-blockmaxweight= Set maximum BIP141 block weight (default: 3000000)
-blockmaxsize= Set maximum block size in bytes (default: 750000)
-blockprioritysize= Set maximum size of high-priority/low-fee transactions in bytes (default: 0)
-blockmintxfee= Set lowest fee rate (in BTC/kB) for transactions to be included in block creation. (default: 0.00001)

RPC server options:
-server Accept command line and JSON-RPC commands
-rest Accept public REST requests (default: 0)
-rpcbind= Bind to given address to listen for JSON-RPC connections. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6. This option can be specified multiple times (default: bind to all interfaces)
-rpccookiefile= Location of the auth cookie (default: data dir)
-rpcuser= Username for JSON-RPC connections
-rpcpassword= Password for JSON-RPC connections
-rpcauth= Username and hashed password for JSON-RPC connections. The field comes in the format: :$. A canonical python script is included in share/rpcuser. The client then connects normally using the rpcuser=/rpcpassword= pair of arguments. This option can be specified multiple times
-rpcport= Listen for JSON-RPC connections on (default: 8332 or testnet: 18332)
-rpcallowip= Allow JSON-RPC connections from specified source. Valid for are a single IP (e.g., a network/netmask (e.g. or a network/CIDR (e.g. This option can be specified multiple times
-rpcthreads= Set the number of threads to service RPC calls (default: 4)

UI Options:
-choosedatadir Choose data directory on startup (default: 0)
-lang= Set language, for example "de_DE" (default: system locale)
-min Start minimized
-rootcertificates= Set SSL root certificates for payment request (default: -system-)
-splash Show splash screen on startup (default: 1)
-resetguisettings Reset all settings changed in the GUI

Many of the boolean options can also be set to off by specifying them with a "no" prefix: e.g. -nodnseed.

Bitcoin.conf Configuration File

All command-line options (except for -conf) may be specified in a configuration file, and all configuration file options may also be specified on the command line. Command-line options override values set in the configuration file.

The configuration file is a list of setting=value pairs, one per line, with optional comments starting with the '#' character.

The configuration file is not automatically created; you can create it using your favorite plain-text editor. A user-friendly configuration file generator is available here. By default, Bitcoin (or bitcoind) will look for a file named 'bitcoin.conf' in the bitcoin data directory, but both the data directory and the configuration file path may be changed using the -datadir and -conf command-line arguments.

Operating System Default bitcoin datadir Typical path to configuration file
Windows  %APPDATA%\Bitcoin\ C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Bitcoin\bitcoin.conf
Linux $HOME/.bitcoin/ /home/username/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf
Mac OSX $HOME/Library/Application Support/Bitcoin/ /Users/username/Library/Application Support/Bitcoin/bitcoin.conf

Note: if running Bitcoin in testnet mode, the sub-folder "testnet" will be appended to the data directory automatically.

Sample Bitcoin.conf

Copied from

## bitcoin.conf configuration file. Lines beginning with # are comments.
## # Network-related settings: # Run on the test network instead of the real bitcoin network.
#testnet=0 # Run a regression test network
#regtest=0 # Connect via a SOCKS5 proxy
#proxy= # Bind to given address and always listen on it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6
#bind= # Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6
#whitebind= ##############################################################
## Quick Primer on addnode vs connect ##
## Let's say for instance you use addnode= ##
## addnode will connect you to and tell you about the ##
## nodes connected to In addition it will tell ##
## the other nodes connected to it that you exist so ##
## they can connect to you. ##
## connect will not do the above when you 'connect' to it. ##
## It will *only* connect you to and no one else.##
## ##
## So if you're behind a firewall, or have other problems ##
## finding nodes, add some using 'addnode'. ##
## ##
## If you want to stay private, use 'connect' to only ##
## connect to "trusted" nodes. ##
## ##
## If you run multiple nodes on a LAN, there's no need for ##
## all of them to open lots of connections. Instead ##
## 'connect' them all to one node that is port forwarded ##
## and has lots of connections. ##
## Thanks goes to [Noodle] on Freenode. ##
############################################################## # Use as many addnode= settings as you like to connect to specific peers
#addnode= # Alternatively use as many connect= settings as you like to connect ONLY to specific peers
#connect= # Listening mode, enabled by default except when 'connect' is being used
#listen=1 # Maximum number of inbound+outbound connections.
#maxconnections= #
# JSON-RPC options (for controlling a running Bitcoin/bitcoind process)
# # server=1 tells Bitcoin-Qt and bitcoind to accept JSON-RPC commands
#server=0 # Bind to given address to listen for JSON-RPC connections. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6.
# This option can be specified multiple times (default: bind to all interfaces)
#rpcbind= # If no rpcpassword is set, rpc cookie auth is sought. The default `-rpccookiefile` name
# is .cookie and found in the `-datadir` being used for bitcoind. This option is typically used
# when the server and client are run as the same user.
# If not, you must set rpcuser and rpcpassword to secure the JSON-RPC api. The first
# method(DEPRECATED) is to set this pair for the server and client:
# The second method `rpcauth` can be added to server startup argument. It is set at intialization time
# using the output from the script in share/rpcuser/ after providing a username:
# ./share/rpcuser/ alice
# String to be appended to bitcoin.conf:
# rpcauth=alice:f7efda5c189b999524f151318c0c86$d5b51b3beffbc02b724e5d095828e0bc8b2456e9ac8757ae3211a5d9b16a22ae
# Your password:
# On client-side, you add the normal user/password pair to send commands:
# You can even add multiple entries of these to the server conf file, and client can use any of them:
# rpcauth=bob:b2dd077cb54591a2f3139e69a897ac$4e71f08d48b4347cf8eff3815c0e25ae2e9a4340474079f55705f40574f4ec99 # How many seconds bitcoin will wait for a complete RPC HTTP request.
# after the HTTP connection is established. #rpcclienttimeout=30 # By default, only RPC connections from localhost are allowed.
# Specify as many rpcallowip= settings as you like to allow connections from other hosts,
# either as a single IPv4/IPv6 or with a subnet specification. # NOTE: opening up the RPC port to hosts outside your local trusted network is NOT RECOMMENDED,
# because the rpcpassword is transmitted over the network unencrypted. # server=1 tells Bitcoin-Qt to accept JSON-RPC commands.
# it is also read by bitcoind to determine if RPC should be enabled #rpcallowip=
#rpcallowip=2001:db8:85a3:0:0:8a2e:370:7334/96 # Listen for RPC connections on this TCP port:
#rpcport=8332 # You can use Bitcoin or bitcoind to send commands to Bitcoin/bitcoind
# running on another host using this option:
#rpcconnect= # Create transactions that have enough fees so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 6).
# This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
#txconfirmtarget=n # Miscellaneous options # Pre-generate this many public/private key pairs, so wallet backups will be valid for
# both prior transactions and several dozen future transactions.
#keypool=100 # Pay an optional transaction fee every time you send bitcoins. Transactions with fees
# are more likely than free transactions to be included in generated blocks, so may
# be validated sooner.
#paytxfee=0.00 # Enable pruning to reduce storage requirements by deleting old blocks. # This mode is incompatible with -txindex and -rescan.
# 0 = default (no pruning).
# 1 = allows manual pruning via RPC.
# >=550 = target to stay under in MiB. #prune=550 # User interface options # Start Bitcoin minimized
#min=1 # Minimize to the system tray



Start automatically

To configure the Bitcoin client to start automatically:

You might use the configuration-file, or the GUI-Settings:

Settings -> Options

then mark the checkbox titled:

[X] Start Bitcoin on system startup

Batch automation

To work with batch, you have to start the daemon (bitcoind.exe). The bitcoin.exe run with option "-server" will respond with GUI-messages you are not able to process its answers.



See Also

Это интересно:

Bitcoin Cash Block Time chart - bitinfocharts

From Bitcoin Wiki

This page describes the Bitcoin Core code that manages startup and initialization.

Program entry point

The program's entry point can be found in bitcoind.cpp.

main() is three lines of code:

  • SetupEnvironment() (all this does is set the program's locale)
  • Connect signal handlers
  • AppInit() (this function loops for the life of the program)

AppInit: this is located nearby in bitcoind.cpp:

  • Parses the command line
  • Opens the data directory
  • Reads the config file
  • Forks a process (if running as a daemon)
  • Passes control to AppInit2(), found in init.cpp.

Initialization steps (init.cpp)

AppInit2() initializes the bitcoin system.

It contains about 800 lines of code, which are broken into 12 steps.

Where each step begins is documented in the code. Init.cpp has a few functions at the top of the file, but for the most part it consists of AppInit2().

The following table summarizes the steps:

Short Description Longer Description
1 OS-specific setup tasks These tasks are not particularly interesting.
For more info, see the code.
2 Parameter Interactions Certain command-line options require other options to be set in a certain way.
For example, -zapwallettxes implies a -rescan, thus the code will set the -rescan flag=true if it isn't already.
3 Internal flags /
Parameter sanity-check
Sets global variables for certain parameters.
For the wallet, it sanity-checks transaction fee levels (makes sure your fee is high enough to qualify for relay [error]; but not absurdly high [warning]).
4 Application init. / RPC Server

Locks the data directory. (If unable, print error and quit.) Spawn X threads for the Script-checking engine. (Default=0, meaning use all available processors; boost::thread::hardware_concurrency).

Start RPC server in "warmup" mode.

5 Verify wallet database integrity If wallet is enabled, try to open it.

If the user knows that the wallet has been corrupted (-salvagewallet), try to recover the private keys.

6 Network Initialization

The node registers for certain signals. Checks whether the user wants to interact only with peers on a certain network (ip4, ip6, tor). Checks whether to use onion routing (tor). Checks whether the user wants to whitelist any specific peers. Attempts to listen on the bitcoin port (exits on failure).

If user specified a certain peer to seed connections, attempt to connect.

7 Load the block chain.

Load the blockchain into memory and initialize the UTXO caches.

Calculate cache sizes.

There is a total cache size, which is divided amongst three specific caches. Default total cache size = 100MB (Max: 4 GB, min: 4 MB). 1) Blockchain cache: 1/8 of the total cache, but shouldn't be larger than 2MB. 2) UTXO database cache : 25-50% of the remaining cache space. This is the LevelDB cache.

This stores uncompressed blocks of LevelDB data and is managed by LevelDB, as described in the LevelDB documentation.

3) UTXO in-memory cache: Half of the remaining cache space. This cache size defines the size of the cacheCoins object (a protected member of CoinsViewCache). TODO: verify that this statement is correct...

Load the blockchain into mapBlockIndex.

By "blockchain" this means the entire block tree (all known blocks, not just those in the active chain.) What is loaded into memory are the CBlockIndex objects, which contain metadata about the block. Verifies the last 288 blocks (VerifyDB). Note: The program takes less than 1 second from startup until this point; this step takes about 10-20 seconds.

The UTXO set.

The UTXO set is not loaded into memory; instead, the cache will be filled as coins are accessed from the database. Note that as of May 2015, storing the entire UTXO set in memory would require about 3.6 GB.

As of Jan. 2016, the compressed data on disk is about 1.2 GB.

8 Load the wallet. If this is the first time the program has been run, it creates a wallet and gives you an initial key (address).
9 Datadir maintenance If the user is block-pruning, unset NODE_NETWORK and call the pruning function.
10 Import blocks Scan for better chains in the block chain database, that are not yet connected as the active best chain.
11 Start node /
RPC server

Calls StartNode in net.cpp. This starts up the networking thread group, including ThreadProcessMessage, which is the program's main thread (see below).

Transition RPC server from "warmup" mode to normal mode.

12 Finished

When AppInit2 finishes, control returns to AppInit() in bitcoind.cpp.

There, the code's top-level thread loops indefinitely in a function called WaitForShutdown(). It sleeps for 2 seconds and checks to see if the user pressed ctrl-C. If so, it calls Shutdown() back in init.cpp.

Shutdown() shuts down the RPC server, stops the node, unregisters the signal handlers, etc., and then the program completes.

Cache Sizes

Step 7 initialized the cache sizes. There are 3 caches contemplated in step 7. Two are LevelDB database caches and the other is the coins cache, whose size is managed by the flushing code in main.cpp.

The user can allocate a total cache size with -dbcache. The user cannot pick and choose how much space to allocate to each specific cache. The default total cache size = 100MB (Max: 4 GB, min: 4 MB).

1) Block index cache

This cache stores uncompressed chunks of the /blocks/index LevelDB data and is managed by LevelDB, as described in the LevelDB documentation.

If the user enables a full transaction index (-txindex=1) it can be up to 1/8 of the total cache size. If -txindex is not enabled then only 2 MiB is needed.

2) UTXO database cache

This is the LevelDB cache for the /chainstate database.

This cache is allocated 25-50% of the remaining cache space, depending on the total cache size.

3) UTXO in-memory cache

This is the coins cache that is managed by the main.cpp code. (see FlushStateToDisk and related functions)

The variable (nCoinsCache) is declared as extern in main.h. In main.cpp, it is hard-coded to 5000 * 300 (in-memory coins are about 300 bytes, so this means 5000 coins), however it should be re-initialized in Step 7.

This cache is given all of the remaining cache space.

This cache is not loaded during initialization, rather it is filled as coins are accessed. (This can be verified by the CCoinsViewCache constructor, which sets cachedCoinsUsage=0.)

Thread Startup

The code uses boost::thread_groups to manage the various threads.

It should be noted that although Bitcoin Core is a multi-threaded program, "the reference Satoshi client is largely single-threaded." Comment by Mike Hearn in BIP 31 (2012)

What is meant is that the vast majority of the program's activity takes place in the messaging thread (ThreadMessageHandler - see below.)

Almost all of the threads are part of a single, master thread group that is created on the stack at program startup (see bitcoind.cpp). This thread group is passed to init.cpp which creates a few child threads (including a number of script-checking threads, but these are all part of the master thread group, not a separate group.)

The thread group is passed to net.cpp, which creates the networking threads, including the message-processing thread.

The two other thread groups are task-specific:

  • rpc server thread group (see rpcserver.h/cpp)
  • miner thread group

Naturally, the node will only create the RPC server thread group if the RPC server is activated, and will only create the miner thread group if it is mining. If both are disabled, then Bitcoin Core only has a single thread group.

Child Threads

The parent thread (meaning the thread in which the program begins operating) delegates almost all of the program's work to child threads. After spawning threads in init.cpp and net.cpp, the parent thread simply listens for a shutdown command, at which time the parent thread needs only to interrupt the threads in its thread group and proceed with shutdown.

The child threads are summarized in this table, listed in the order in which they are created:

Thread When / Where Created Description
Script-checking Step 4
This is a set of threads - 4 by default.
Script-checking (including signature checking) is expensive so is handled in separate threads.
Scheduler Step 4
Scheduler thread.
(TODO: describe)
RPC Threads Step 4
If RPC server enabled, start a group of threads to handle RPC calls.
Import Step 10
Imports blocks. Three scenarios:1) Reindex (rescan all known blocks from blk???.dat files).2) Bootstrap (use bootstrap.dat as an alternative to full IBD from the network.)3) -loadblock (scan a specific blk???.dat file)

If none of those apply, this thread does nothing.

DNSAddressSeed Step 11
Attempts to build a vector of IP addresses based on the dns seeds, stores the vector and the thread exits.
In a test in June 2014, this took about 4 seconds and found 158 addresses.
Plug & Play Step 11
UPNP (Universal Plug & Play)
Deals with port mapping for UPNP.
SocketHandler Step 11
This thread services the sockets:Waits for I/O on all the relevant sockets with a 50ms timeout.Processes new incoming connections on listening socket and creates a CNode for the new peer.Receives and sends data streams.

Sets sockets that have not done anything to a disconnected state.

OpenAddedConnections Step 11
Initiates outbound connections specified by the user with the –addnode parameter.
If can't connect, sleeps for 2 minutes each cycle.
OpenConnections Step 11
Initiates other outbound connections from DNS seeds (if that fails, find nodes based on fixed seeds)
If can't connect, sleeps for 500 milliseconds each cycle.
MessageHandler Step 11
This is the program's main thread.
This thread runs a while(true) loop, receiving and sending messages. (See net.cpp:1049) The code uses boost::signals2 to call the ProcessMessages and SendMessages functions in main.cpp.(The code introducing signals is in PR 2154 - see the next-to-last commit in that pull.)ProcessMessage and SendMessage run in this thread.

So, most of the code in main.cpp runs in this thread.

Wallet Flusher Step 12
If wallet is enabled, this thread flushes the wallet periodically.

See also

Bitcoin Core 0.11 (Ch 1): Overview
Bitcoin Core 0.11 (Ch 2): Data Storage
Bitcoin Core 0.11 (Ch 4): P2P Network
Bitcoin Core 0.11 (Ch 5): Initial Block Download
Bitcoin Core 0.11 (Ch 6): The Blockchain

биткоин котировка.

Bitcoin RTG Sunderland Message Boards

Bitcoin-Qt version 0.8.0 are now available from:

This is a major release designed to improve performance and handle the increasing volume of transactions on the network.

Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github:

How to Upgrade

If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux).

The first time you run after the upgrade a re-indexing process will be started that will take anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours, depending on the speed of your machine.

Incompatible Changes

This release no longer maintains a full index of historical transaction ids by default, so looking up an arbitrary transaction using the getrawtransaction RPC call will not work. If you need that functionality, you must run once with -txindex=1 -reindex=1 to rebuild block-chain indices (see below for more details).


Mac and Windows binaries are signed with certificates owned by the Bitcoin Foundation, to be compatible with the new security features in OSX 10.8 and Windows 8.

LevelDB, a fast, open-source, non-relational database from Google, is now used to store transaction and block indices. LevelDB works much better on machines with slow I/O and is faster in general. Berkeley DB is now only used for the wallet.dat file (public and private wallet keys and transactions relevant to you).

Pieter Wuille implemented many optimizations to the way transactions are verified, so a running, synchronized node uses less working memory and does much less I/O. He also implemented parallel signature checking, so if you have a multi-CPU machine all CPUs will be used to verify transactions.

New Features

“Bloom filter” support in the network protocol for sending only relevant transactions to lightweight clients.

contrib/verifysfbinaries is a shell-script to verify that the binary downloads at sourceforge have not been tampered with. If you are able, you can help make everybody’s downloads more secure by running this occasionally to check PGP signatures against download file checksums.

contrib/spendfrom is a python-language command-line utility that demonstrates how to use the “raw transactions” JSON-RPC api to send coins received from particular addresses (also known as “coin control”).

New/changed settings (command-line or bitcoin.conf file)

dbcache : controls LevelDB memory usage.

par : controls how many threads to use to validate transactions. Defaults to the number of CPUs on your machine, use -par=1 to limit to a single CPU.

txindex : maintains an extra index of old, spent transaction ids so they will be found by the getrawtransaction JSON-RPC method.

reindex : rebuild block and transaction indices from the downloaded block data.

New JSON-RPC API Features

lockunspent / listlockunspent allow locking transaction outputs for a period of time so they will not be spent by other processes that might be accessing the same wallet.

addnode / getaddednodeinfo methods, to connect to specific peers without restarting.

importprivkey now takes an optional boolean parameter (default true) to control whether or not to rescan the blockchain for transactions after importing a new private key.

Important Bug Fixes

Privacy leak: the position of the “change” output in most transactions was not being properly randomized, making network analysis of the transaction graph to identify users’ wallets easier.

Zero-confirmation transaction vulnerability: accepting zero-confirmation transactions (transactions that have not yet been included in a block) from somebody you do not trust is still not recommended, because there will always be ways for attackers to double-spend zero-confirmation transactions. However, this release includes a bug fix that makes it a little bit more difficult for attackers to double-spend a certain type (“lockTime in the future”) of zero-confirmation transaction.

Dependency Changes

Qt 4.8.3 (compiling against older versions of Qt 4 should continue to work)

Thanks to everybody who contributed to this release:

  • Alexander Kjeldaas
  • Andrey Alekseenko
  • Arnav Singh
  • Christian von Roques
  • Eric Lombrozo
  • Forrest Voight
  • Gavin Andresen
  • Gregory Maxwell
  • Jeff Garzik
  • Luke Dashjr
  • Matt Corallo
  • Mike Cassano
  • Mike Hearn
  • Peter Todd
  • Philip Kaufmann
  • Pieter Wuille
  • Richard Schwab
  • Robert Backhaus
  • Rune K. Svendsen
  • Sergio Demian Lerner
  • Wladimir J. van der Laan
  • burger2
  • default
  • fanquake
  • grimd34th
  • justmoon
  • redshark1802
  • tucenaber
  • xanatos
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Bitcoin rpc compatible coins - Komodo Platform Wiki

Provided by: bitcoind_0.3.24~dfsg-1_i386
 bitcoin.conf - bitcoin configuration file 
 All command-line options (except for '-datadir' and '-conf') may be specified in a configuration file, and all configuration file options may also be specified on the command line. Command-line options override values set in the configuration file. The configuration file is a list of 'setting=value' pairs, one per line, with optional comments starting with the '#' character. The configuration file is not automatically created; you can create it using your favorite plain-text editor. By default, bitcoind(1) will look for a file named bitcoin.conf(5) in the bitcoin data directory, but both the data directory and the configuration file path may be changed using the '-datadir' and '-conf' command-line arguments. 
 bitcoin.conf should be located in $HOME/.bitcoin 
 testnet=['1'|'0'] Enable or disable run on the test network instead of the real *bitcoin* network. proxy='' Connect via a socks4 proxy. addnode='' Use as many *addnode=* settings as you like to connect to specific peers. connect='' Use as many *connect=* settings as you like to connect ONLY to specific peers. noirc=['1'|'0'] Use or Do not use Internet Relay Chat ( #bitcoin channel) to find other peers. maxconnections='value' Maximum number of inbound+outbound connections. 
 server=['1'|'0'] Tells *bitcoin* to accept or not accept JSON-RPC commands. rpcuser='username' You must set *rpcuser* to secure the JSON-RPC api. rpcpassword='password' You must set *rpcpassword* to secure the JSON-RPC api. rpctimeout='30' How many seconds *bitcoin* will wait for a complete RPC HTTP request, after the HTTP connection is established. rpcallowip='192.168.1.*' By default, only RPC connections from localhost are allowed. Specify as many *rpcallowip=* settings as you like to allow connections from other hosts (and you may use * as a wildcard character). rpcport='8332' Listen for RPC connections on this TCP port. rpcconnect='' You can use *bitcoin* or *bitcoind(1)* to send commands to *bitcoin*/*bitcoind(1)* running on another host using this option. rpcssl='1' Use Secure Sockets Layer (also known as TLS or HTTPS) to communicate with *bitcoin* '-server' or *bitcoind(1)*. Example of OpenSSL settings used when *rpcssl*='1': rpcsslciphers='TLSv1+HIGH:!SSLv2:!aNULL:!eNULL:!AH:!3DES:@STRENGTH' rpcsslcertificatechainfile='server.cert' rpcsslprivatekeyfile='server.pem' MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS gen=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable attempt to generate bitcoins. 4way=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable use SSE instructions to try to generate bitcoins faster. keypool='100' Pre-generate this many public/private key pairs, so wallet backups will be valid for both prior transactions and several dozen future transactions. paytxfee='0.00' Pay an optional transaction fee every time you send bitcoins. Transactions with fees are more likely than free transactions to be included in generated blocks, so may be validated sooner. allowreceivebyip='1' Allow direct connections for the 'pay via IP address' feature. USER INTERFACE OPTIONS min=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable start bitcoind minimized. minimizetotray=['0'|'1'] Enable or disable minimize to the system tray. 
 This manual page was written by Micah Anderson  for the Debian system (but may be used by others). Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU General Public License, Version 3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. On Debian systems, the complete text of the GNU General Public License can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL.
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Bitcoin Developer Reference - Bitcoin

Bitcore is a full bitcoin node — your apps run directly on the peer-to-peer network. For wallet application development, additional indexes have been added into Bitcoin for querying address balances, transaction history, and unspent outputs.

Bitcore is 100% open source, powered by the time-tested and battle-hardened Bitcore Library.

Apps built on Bitcore benefit from the extensive testing and review of dozens of bitcoin companies and community contributors.

Bitcore provides a powerful blockchain API and the Insight blockchain explorer, right out of the box.

A modular, service-based architecture makes Bitcore a perfect platform for enterprise applications.