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LOT Polish Airlines United States Book on the official . Pll lot bitcoin

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SymbolCompany NameLast PriceChange% Change
AMDAdvanced Micro Devices, Inc.11.680.030.27%
BAThe Boeing Company349.508.592.52%
LLYEli Lilly and Company78.000.010.01%
XRXXerox Corporation31.050.200.65%
CHKPCheck Point Software Technologies Ltd.100.73-0.71-0.70%
UNHUnitedHealth Group Incorporated226.601.420.63%
SSNLFSamsung Electronics Co., Ltd.2,210.000.000.00%
TMOThermo Fisher Scientific Inc.208.97-0.51-0.24%
EAElectronic Arts Inc.123.005-0.125-0.102%
ANTMAnthem, Inc.237.672.841.21%
FBFacebook, Inc.183.06-2.25-1.21%
EPDEnterprise Products Partners L.P.26.8850.1750.655%
ERICTelefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ)6.480.071.09%
CPI.LCapita plc203.89986.44983.2665%
CASCCascadian Therapeutics, Inc.10.010.010.10%
DHID.R. Horton, Inc.47.1451.0352.245%
NSPRInspireMD, Inc.0.18820-0.00680-3.48718%
BLCMBellicum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.5.7850.0651.136%
CHKChesapeake Energy Corporation2.995-0.135-4.313%
ALGNAlign Technology, Inc.237.990-3.460-1.433%
NTDOYNintendo Co., Ltd.52.18-0.27-0.51%
BABAAlibaba Group Holding Limited184.51-0.66-0.36%
AMZNAmazon.com, Inc.1,450.21477.37480.5111%
SMGThe Scotts Miracle-Gro Company89.09-0.04-0.04%
DGAZVelocityShares 3x Inv Natural Gas ETN28.691.836.81%
BTC-USDBitcoin USD8,104.20402.955.23%
XUnited States Steel Corporation35.470.160.45%
005930.KSSamsung Electronics Co., Ltd.2,290,000.00-81,000.00-3.42%
^DJIDow Jones Industrial Average25,105.39192.620.77%
MSFTMicrosoft Corporation90.77-0.56-0.61%

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Is Bitcoin here to stay or are a lot of people going to .

Pretty Little Liars actress Shay Mitchell and executive producer I. Marlene King are reuniting — but not for Freeform’s potential PLL spinoff The Perfectionists.

Mitchell will headline Heiresses, a family soap/mystery written by King which has received a put-pilot commitment from ABC, our sister site Deadline reports.

Based on PLL author Sara Shepard’s 2014 novel, the project is set in the diamond world, where the Saybrooks are a household name. The family has “been blessed with great fortune, but cursed with epic loss. The events surrounding a deadly accident a year ago drove a wedge between the once inseparable diamond empire heiresses. But when an unspeakable tragedy brings the cousins back together, they create a truly unbreakable bond. They set to solve the mystery of who wants the Saybrook family dead before one of them is the next target.”

Mitchell — who spent seven seasons playing Emily Fields on PLL — next co-stars in Lifetime’s upcoming psychological thriller series You, from executive producers Greg Berlanti (Arrow, Riverdale) and Sera Gamble (The Magicians, Supernatural).

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WARNING: If you have yet to watch Monday’s season finale of Pretty Little Liars, avert your eyes now. Everyone else, you may proceed….

The secret is out! After two seasons of relentless teasing, mind-bending clues and strategically placed red herrings, Pretty Little Liars at long last revealed the identity of that infamous taunting texter known as “A”!

And just like in the books, the culprit is… Mona.

After realizing that Alison was following “A” and not the other way around, Spencer (with Mona in tow) headed back to the hotel were Ali had been staying and discovered “A’s” lair. There among the creepy collage of photos featuring Ali and the girls Spencer found sketches of “A’s” masquerade costume – Black Swan – and Ali’s journal bookmarked with a gum wrapper – the same brand Mona offered Spencer just before she found the book. Dun dun dun!

So why all the creepy texts and threats? “You bitches took [Hanna] away from me,” Mona told Spencer. “It’s about revenge. …You stole my only friend.”

But more telling was her threat that “you can join the ‘A’ team or you can disappear.” Does that mean Mona is working with somebody else? After all, the mysterious Black Swan was talking to Jenna and Lucas – maybe there was more to his weird behavior this season than guilt over money issues? – before she ran off. All we know about the ballerina, however, is that she’s “tall and a size 2,” as Hanna put it, which counts out a very pregnant Melissa out. (Or is she faking the baby bump? You never know with this show.) There’s also the red-coated figure that visited Mona at the end of the episode.

“I did everything you asked me to,” Mona said to that mystery person. And let’s not forget the unseen individual Jenna went to meet earlier. Are they one in the same? Is someone else – Alison? Her evil twin Vivian? – pulling the strings?

Despite taking a nose dive off a cliff, Mona survived the fall. But her sanity isn’t intact, according to Dr. Sullivan, who came out of hiding after receiving a phone call from Toby. She’s going to the loony bin to deal with her personality disorder, but things are far from over or safe. The gals are going home to sleep with their windows and doors open, but “don’t they know that’s what we want,” taunted Mona’s voiceover. Whoever “we” is knows how to hit the girls where it hurts the most, and that’s via their loved ones. And as they made their way to Emily’s house, they were greeted with the sight of police and an ambulance.

“They found a body,” Emily’s mom announced. “They think it’s Maya.” And who should be standing nearby behind the yellow police tape but Melissa!

While Emily took a devastating personal loss, things were smooth sailing for the rest of the Liars on the relationship front. Ezra surprised Aria at the ball, and the two made a very public display of their affection as he took off their blindfolds (“This is our first dance, I want to see you”) and kissed her. Meanwhile, Toby and Spencer rekindled their romance after Dr. Sullivan revealed that it was Toby who contacted her. “Pretending not to love you was the hardest thing I’ve ever done,” he told Spencer. And there was hardly a hiccup in Hanna and Caleb’s relationship! It seems “A” did something nice and took the heat off the couples, allowing for some happy endings there.

As for Mona’s future, executive producer I. Marlene King said on Monday afternoon, “The person revealed as ‘A’ is not leaving the show and will continue to be a part of the show — and, I hope, become bigger in Season 3.”

What did you think of the big “A” reveal? Did it live up to your expectations? Got any theories about the “A” team? And who killed Maya?! Hit the comments with your thoughts/burning Qs about the Pretty big bombshell.

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Lot - Polskie Linie Lotnicze (LO) #4 FlightAware

The device is based on a GSM/GPRS module with included GPS. Its main function is to detect and communicate its own geographical position using, on the choice, the cellular phone reference system or the GPS. Its small dimensions are due to the use, for the first time, of a GSM/GPRS module integrating the GPS receiver. That is the SIM908 a recent product by SIMCOM.

Circuit schematic of the localizer

The circuit of the localizer is build around two boards, one with the SIM908 on board and the second one including the microcontroller and the battery charger for the lithium battery. To get the GPS working will be necessary to complete the localizer circuit with an appropriate antenna.

The circuit includes the mother board, mounting the microcontroller and its circuitry, and the daughter board mounting the communication module, the block named GSM in the schema. The reference numbers associated to the contacts on the GSM block correspond to the pins of the connector linking the daughterboard to the motherboard.

The program running in the microcontroller U1, one PIC18LF6722, waits for an incoming event or for the button P1 being pushed. While the button is pressed the line RB1, provided with internal pull-up resistor, switches from logical level 1 to the logical level 0,

In case of incoming of an SMS message, the program reacts depending on the content of the message that could be a configuration message or a geographical position request.

Let focus on the process aimed to retrieve the geographical position, that is quite the same in both cases of manual request and P1 pushing (alarm or S.O.S.). After the request has been detected, the program in the PIC microcontroller sends commands to the cellular module in order to have it connected to Internet in GPRS mode. Then connects to the Google Maps server and sends a request of position based on the identification of the cell the SIMCom module is connected to; then again loop waiting for data on the RX channel of the UART. While got data back with the position (Latitude and Longitude) and accuracy, it is a composed string with the appropriate link to Google Maps and sent to the requesting phone, or to the phone number stored in memory coupled to the alarm function.

If the cellular phone is an Android Smartphone or an iPhone, the link received in the SMS can open Google Maps directly on the area where the localizer is present. In the other cases the message contains the coordinates and other data.

The GSM module is managed by the microcontroller using the lines: RF1 (pin 8 on connector) through which it detects the incoming calls through the Ring Indicator (RI), RC7/RX1 (pin 14 on the cellular board); these last two are the lines, respectively, of reception and transmission of the UART used for receiving and sending SMS messages. The same two lines are used for managing the SIM908, unless the reset and power supply lines. Power supply is controlled by line RC2 that affects pin 1 of the cellular module in order to turn ON and OFF the SIM908 and to enable the phone after initialization. Lines cited before are common to the GSM and GPS section of SIM908.

Both the boards are powered by the switch SW1 from the 3.6 volt Li-ion battery connected to the and – poles of the PWR connector.

Many capacitors inserted along the positive power line filter noises coming from the cellular during transmission, that could lock the microcontroller.

To save power, there is the features to “hibernate” the localizer for a maximum period of 240 seconds. This limits the power consumption of the micro and enables the possibility to put also the cellular in standby mode and reduce the system clock speed. In standby mode the cellular soaks only 6 mA of power. On SIM900 the Slow Clock can be enabled using the AT extended command AT CSCLK=2. This command enables the Slow Clock mode automatically when there is no traffic on serial port and disabled it while new data comes in.

The microcontroller exits the “hibernate” mode when a new call come in or at the end of the period (240 seconds), in this case the microcontroller checks for possible SMS received. In the case, it executes and delivers the requests and, at the end, turn back in “hibernate” mode. While in “hibernate” mode the microcontroller can’t detect incoming SMS, this way a possible urgent request will be delayed until the microcontroller will wake up. To overcome this situation could be suitable to anticipate a phone call, may be of just one ring, and then send the SMS. The call will awake the microcontroller and the SMS will be detected immediately.

One specific application of the locator is its use as a motion detection sensor. In this mode the detection is based on the change of the cells the cellular is connected to, the microcontroller stores in memory the current cell and the neighbour cells; if the cellular commutes within these cells it means that it is almost standing still; if it commutes on cells outside the range in memory it means it is moving and, for instance, an alarm can be activated.

This approach can be little sensitive in case of scarcely inhabited lands with a little number of cells: in this case the motion, to be detected, requires a movement quite long.

The power supply comes from a 3.6 volt battery that can be charged by a miniUSB plug that allows recharge from any PC. The power regulator is the chip MCP73831T in SMD version (package SOT-23), it can supply up to 550 mA at 3.6 – 3.7 volt to fully charge a lithium or Li-Po battery with an input supply of 3.75 – 6 volt.

The chip charges the battery with a constant current. The charging current (Ireg) is set by the value of the resistor connected to pin 2, whose value is calculate as:

Ireg = 1.000/R

where the value of R is in ohm and Ireg in Ampere.

As an example with R of 4.7 kohm the current will be 212 mA, while with an R of 2.2 kohm the current will be 454 mA. While pin 5 is opened the chip goes into sleep mode and soaks only 2 µA (therefore the pin 5 can be used as enable).

The LED LD3, while ON means the battery is in charge, and when turns OFF, it means the battery has been fully charged.

The battery charger circuit is completed by the capacitors C1 and C2, while C1 filters high frequency noises and C2 filters alternate noises and stabilize the power to 5 volt.

Part list base

[code]

R1: 10 kohm (0805) R2: 330 ohm (0805) R3: 330 ohm (0805) R4: 330 ohm (0805) R5: 10 kohm (0805) C1: 100 nF (0805) C2: 100 nF (0805) C3: 100 nF (0805) C4: 15 pF (0805) C5: 15 pF (0805) C6: 470 µF 6,3 VL (CASE-X) C7: 4,7 µF 6,3 VL (CASE-P) U1: PIC18LF6722 U2: MCP73831T-2ACI/OT LD1: led red (0805) LD2: led green (0805) LD3: led green  (0805) Q1: quartz 20 MHz (12SMX) SW1: switch P1: Microswitch 90° SMD Mini-USB molex 2 via 90° connector 8 via

connector 2×10 via 2 mm female

[/code]

The cellular board

The SIM908 is mounted on the board by a male connector of 20 pins, (two rows of 10 pins each) step 2 mm.

The active contacts of the connectors are:

  • the power supply, VCC on pins 17 and 19;

  • the power on control line (ON/OFF);

  • the serial communication lines to and from the GSM module (TXD and RXD);
  • the ground (GND) on pins 18 and 20;
  • the Ring Indicator.

In the electrical schema can be seen that the line ON/OFF is used by the microcontroller to manage the switching on and shutting down of the GSM1 module, that it is always under power, delivered by Vcc line on pins 55, 56 and 57 62 and 63; the line includes an internal pull-up resistor and goes ON at logical 0. Therefore, to switch ON the cellular module, the microcontroller have to put high the line ON/OFF (pin 1 on connector). This saturates the T2 transistor, that drive to low the line PWR of GSM1.

The control of reset is at switch-on time, therefore there is no reset line and the jumper J2 must be left open.

Now take a look at the lines reserved to communication. The SIM908 module has two different serial ports on board, one for the cellular section of the module and one for the GPS section. The first UART uses the pins 12, 14 and 10 of the connector; the serial port of GPS communicates on GPSTXD and GPSRXD lines (contacts 4 and 5). Actually the serial port on cellular allows the full management of SIM908 module, therefore it can be used to configure and communicate with the GPS receiver, in order to call for data about satellite status and geographical positioning, and to transfer them to the microcontroller. This is the approach followed in the design of this project.

From the GPSTXD/GPSRXD serial port flows a continuous stream of data in NMEA format, if the microcontroller would have used this source of data for the GPS, it would have been overloaded by data, loosing the possibility to perform the other functions.

Apart from serial communication lines, the IR line (pin 18) of SIM908 module it is used to keep the microcontroller informed about incoming calls.

There are also four audio lines on the module, two for the microphone, MIC1P and MIC1N, (pin 19 and 20) and two for the loudspeaker SPK1N and SPK1P (pin 21 and 22) that are not used in this project.

The antenna for the GSM module is connected directly to its own connector on SIM908 module. The module has a second antenna connector for the GPS antenna. Both active and passive antennas can be connected to the SIM908 module, in the first case the antenna can be powered directly by the module, by closing the jumper J1.

The transistor T1 it is used to drive the signal power LED, its base gets polarized by the logical level on the pin 52 (NETLIGHT) of GSM1 module. The collector of the transistor is connected to the pin 3 of the connector through which the microcontroller gets informed on the presence of the GSM network and on the quality of the connection.

At last the description of the SIM of the cellular phone, named SIM1 and positioned in the classical housing; the contacts on the card are SIM_CLK (clock), SIM_RST (reset) and SIM_DATA (data channel) while the line SIM_VDD (filtered by the capacitor C1) is used to switch on and off the SIM by the SIM908 module. The first three lines have resistors in series to protect the SIM908 module in case the SIM would be inserted incorrectly, short-circuiting the contacts.

Part list SIM908 breakout

[code]

C1: 220 nF (0805) C2: 100 nF (0805) C3: 470 µF 6,3 VL (CASE-D) C4: 470 µF 6,3 VL (CASE-D)

C5: 100 nF (0805)

LD1: LED (0805)

R1: 15 ohm (0805) R2: 15 ohm (0805) R3: 15 ohm (0805) R4: 10 kohm (0805) R5: 4,7 kohm (0805) R6: 10 kohm (0805) R7: 330 ohm (0805) R8: 10 kohm (0805)

R9: 4,7 kohm (0805)

T1: BC817
T2: BC817

GSM1: GSM SIM908

SIM1: SIM-CARD

– Strip male 2×10 2mm

[/code]

Setting and commands

Once completed and programmed, the localizer must be appropriately configured, using a common cellular phone. Some commands are password protected while other commands will be executed if coming from one out of the eighth qualified phone numbers stored in memory.

The same eighth phone numbers are the only qualified to ask for geographical positioning.

The predefined password (automatically set at every system reset) is 12345; it is possible to change the password with one of choice (five digit long) sending the command by SMS containing the text PWDnewpwd;pwd, where pwd is the current password and newpwd is the new one.

 Download the Firmware

 Download the SIM908 Breakout Gerber 

 Download the localizer base Gerber

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I have worked a long time on gathering evidence that our Current monetary systems which have failed over 600 times throughout history has always destroyed the people not in control of the money. There are several examples on where Banks, Governments and other institutions take away your rights after blowing up the system themselves.

In this blog post we are going to get an answer if Fiat Currency and Fractional Reserve Banking or even as many countries now have a Zero Reserve Policy is a breach on human and individual rights that we should have.

Should we give any organization or government the power to destroy the wealth we have built up for ourselves as when we get older we want to relax more and work less? Is it okay for governments to enforce upon you that you need to use their out of thin air created currency if you value gold, silver, beads, bartering, oil, wheat, avocados as a medium of exchange?

Is it okay to let them take your wealth overnight freeze it so you cannot access it and then say the next day you now have 75% less wealth?

Is it okay for bankers to get paid dividends on money created to a nation? Is it okay to give a loan in a Global currency to a country like Ukraine in order to support them in buying arms to fight the side we don’t like?

Is it okay for bankers to crash an economy by making bad decisions and then getting assets back for nothing?

Is it okay for banks to take all or most of your money if they fail? Well if you knew how they operated you would not want your money in one of them.

Is it okay to have massive inequality caused by printing of currency and giving it to the rich to become richer by pumping up asset prices?

Is it okay to print so much money that no one can buy anything with their salary while the people getting the money buy up everything consolidating power?

Is it okay to charge interest(money that does not exist) when you borrow someone money?

Is it okay to remove valuable metals from peoples coins in order to print more money?

Let’s take a look at some of the violations that happen when FIAT Currency and or Fractional Reserve Banking is put in place in economies around the world!

Currency Devaluation, Inflation and Debasing of Coins

From Wikipedia

Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency. It is particularly used in connection with commodity money such as gold or silver coins. A coin is said to be debased if the quantity of gold, silver, copper or nickel is reduced.

The history of Currency debasement of coins started all the way back in the Greek empire here are some examples of currency debasement:

Examples

The Roman Empire was the most notorious currency debaser and over 200 years they devalued their denariuses to only 2% silver from 100% around year 190.

For example, the value of the denarius in Roman currency gradually decreased over time as the Roman government altered both the size and the silver content of the coin. Originally, the silver used was nearly pure, weighing about 4.5 grams. From time to time, this was reduced. During the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the Denarius contained approximately 4 grams of silver, and then was reduced to 3.8 grams under Nero. The Denarius continued to shrink in size and purity, until by the second half of the third century, it was only about 2% silver, and was replaced by the Argenteus.[1]

Because of huge wealth, the Vijayanagara empire issued large quantities of gold coins. Harihara-I and Bukka (the founders of the famous Vijayanagar empire in South India) minted gold coins using debased gold. Gold fanams (a type of coin) and its fractions were minted by them for medium end transactions. [2]

The stealing of money from their citizens is the history’s number one reason for currency debasement!

One reason a government will debase its currency is financial gain for the sovereign at the expense of citizens. By reducing the silver or gold content of a coin, a government can make more coins out of a given amount of specie. Inflation follows, allowing the sovereign to pay off or repudiate government bonds.[3] However, the purchasing power of the citizens’ currency has been reduced. Another reason is to end a deflationary spiral.

Here is an example of what mainstream media or schools would tell you about debasement as they say it is to prevent counterfeiting of money and people melting down the money. When it comes to a point when many people do this then you know you have printed too much currency of the metal backing it. Debasement in modern days are more caused by paper currency overflow and undermining the value of the metal in the coinage. That is why most countries that used to have gold and silver coinage have ever since left precious metal in their coinage in order to print more money and stealing more of your wealth! Many countries perform debasement  in order to go to war. Modern day debasement is more created by reckless money printing by bankers and the commodities they out shadow the face value of the nations coinage. Canada as an example removed silver from their coinage in In 1968, the 10¢ and higher denominations were debased, their silver alloy being replaced by nickel.

In 2000 all coins below $1 were changed to steel with copper or nickel plating; in 2012 this was extended to the $1 and $2 coins as well. The 50¢ piece is regularly minted, but not in large quantities; it is very rare to come across this coin in circulation, although an unsuccessful attempt was made by the Mint to promote the use of the coin when a special edition was released in 2002 marking the 50th anniversary of Elizabeth II ascending the throne.

Debasement was also the result of the value of the precious metal content rising above the face value of coins. As the market price of precious metal rose, the intrinsic value of coins would eventually rise above the face value and so a profit could be made from using coins as bullion rather than monetary instrument. This gave an incentive to money changers and mint masters to practice illegal debasement via clipping and sweating. Coins would also be melted down and exported. To anticipate these illegal debasements and preserve the quality and quantity of coins, the king would either debase or cry up the coinage (i.e. raise the face value of coins). Thus, debasement had its legitimate purposes and was welcome by the population if done to preserve the stability of the coinage [4]

Debasement kills the value of your saved up wealth and is therefore a crime of an empire, country or state as it steals from you and makes you poor for no other reason than the institutions mentioned to spend more money without your consent! Here is an example from the longest lasting empire in history the Ottoman empire:

Debasement lowers the intrinsic value of the coinage and so more coins can be made with the same quantity of precious metal. Debasement was not by itself a source of inflation, but it could have been so if the King spent too quickly and unproductively the extra financing capacity. The cause of inflation in medieval times is found in the type of spending that Kings did rather than the ability to debase; wars, huge castles, and other extravagant and unproductive expenses strained the resources of the economy. If the debased currency had been used methodically to fund projects that promote economic growth, high inflation would not have occurred. If done too frequently, debasement may lead to a new coin being adopted as a standard currency, as when the Ottoman Akçe was replaced by the Kuruş (1 kurus = 120 akçe), with the para (1/40 kurus) as a subunit. The Kurus in turn later became a subdivision of the lira.

Currency Devaluation and Inflation

The invention of paper money I dated back to China in 1000AD

Yuan dynasty banknotes are the earliest known fiat money.

Fiat money is currency which derives its value from government regulation or law. The term derives from the Latin fiat (“let it be done”, “it shall be”).[1] It differs from commodity money and representative money. Commodity money is based on a good, often a precious metal such as gold or silver, which has uses other than as a medium of exchange, while representative money is a claim on the commodity rather than the actual good.

The first use of fiat money was recorded in China around 1000 AD. Since then, it has been used continuously by various countries, concurrently with commodity currencies.

A point of view from explorer Marco Polo:

“All these pieces of paper are, issued with as much solemnity and authority as if they were of pure gold or silver… and indeed everybody takes them readily, for wheresoever a person may go throughout the Great Kaan‘s dominions he shall find these pieces of paper current, and shall be able to transact all sales and purchases of goods by means of them just as well as if they were coins of pure gold.” —Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo

Lets take a look at different destructions of currencies around the world:

Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money in order to create fiat currency.[19] During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, and reacted by printing more, leading to inflation.[20] The problem of inflation became so severe that the people stopped using paper money, which they saw as “worthless paper.”[21] Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty initially rejected the use of paper money, using only copper coins. The dynasty did not issue paper currency until 1375.[21] 

 

Below is a historical look at Fiat Currencies and how long they lasted(Remember FIAT currencies only gets their value by force from governments or private institutions):

Currency Name (Currency Code) Inception Demonetized Duration
(Years)
Destroyed by
Hyperinflation
DDR Kuponmark (DDK) 1948 1948 1 mo. Yes
Yugoslav 1994 Dinar (YUG) 1994 1994 1 mo. Yes
Hungarian Bilpengoe (HUB) 1946 1946 1.5 mos. Yes
German Gold Mark (DEG) 1923 1923 2 mos. Yes
Hungarian Adopengoe (HUA) 1946 1946 2 mos. Yes
Netherlands Rijksdaalder (NLX) 1904 1904 2.5 mos.
Slovenia Laibach Lira (SIL) 1944 1944 2.5 mos.
Hungarian Milpengoe (HUM) 1946 1946 3 mos. Yes
North Korean Won (KPO) 1959 1959 3 mos. Yes
Kazakhstan Ruble (KZR) 1993 1993 3 mos. Yes
Yugoslav October Dinar (YUO) 1993 1993 3 mos. Yes
Krajina (Serbian Republic) October Dinar (HRKO) 1993 1994 3 mos. Yes
Polish Zloty Lublin (PLL) 1944 1945 4 mos.
Serbian Republic October Dinar (BASO) 1993 1994 4 mos.
Hungarian Red Army Pengoe (HUR) 1945 1945 6 mos. Yes
Rupiah Kepulauan Riau (IDRR) 1963 1964 8.5 mos.
Uzbekistan Coupon Sum (UZC) 1993 1994 8.5 mos. Yes
Japan Base Metal Kammon (JPK) 1904 1905 9 mos. Yes
Japan Silver Momme (JPM) 1904 1905 9 mos. Yes
Japan Gold Oban (JPO) 1904 1905 9 mos. Yes
Lithuania Talonas (LTT) 1992 1993 9 mos. Yes
Ukraine Karbovanetz (UAK) 1992 1993 11 mos. Yes
Transnistrian Ruble (PDR) 1994 1994 11 mos. Yes
French Franc (Assignats) (FRA) 1795 1796 1 Yes
French Franc (Mandats Territorial) (FRM) 1796 1797 1 Yes
Confederate States Reformed Dollar (CSAR) 1864 1865 1 Yes
German New Guinea Mark (PGM) 1914 1915 1
German Southwest Africa Mark (NAP) 1914 1915 1
Transcaucasian Ruble (ZKRR) 1917 1918 1
Austrian Krone (ATK) 1918 1919 1
North Russian Ruble (RUNR) 1919 1920 1
East Africa Florin (XEAF) 1920 1922 1
Russian Ruble of 1922 (RUFR) 1922 1922 1 Yes
Soviet Ruble of 1923 (SUB) 1923 1924 1 Yes
Austrian Allied Military Schillings (ATM) 1944 1945 1
Czechoslovak Red Army Korunu (CSR) 1944 1945 1
Romanian Red Army Leu (ROR) 1944 1945 1 Yes
Azerbaijan Toman (IRZT) 1945 1946 1
Sinkiang Gold Yuan (CNSG) 1948 1949 1
Chinese Gold Chin Yuan (CNG) 1948 1949 1 Yes
Ghana Old Cedi (GHO) 1965 1967 1
Brazil Cruzado Novo (BRN) 1989 1990 1 Yes
Slovenia Tolar Bons (SIB) 1991 1992 1
Moldovan Ruble Kupon (MDR) 1991 1992 1 Yes
Moldovan Leu Cupon (MDC) 1992 1993 1
Albanian Lek Valute (ALV) 1992 1993 1
Serbian Republic Reformed Dinar (BASR) 1992 1993 1 Yes
Krajina (Serbian Republic) Reformed Dinar (HRKR) 1992 1993 1 Yes
Latvia Ruble (LVR) 1992 1993 1 Yes
Macedonian Denar (MKN) 1992 1993 1 Yes
Yugoslav Reformed Dinar (YUR) 1992 1993 1 Yes
Brazil Cruzeiro Real (BRR) 1993 1994 1 Yes
Maryland Red Shillings (CMDR) 1781 1783 2
New Jersey New Shilling (CNJN) 1781 1783 2
Vermont State Shilling (CVTS) 1781 1783 2
Haiti New Paper Gourde (HTN) 1870 1872 2 Yes
Peru Inca (PER) 1880 1882 2
Germany Darlenskasse Ost Ruble (DEOR) 1916 1918 2
Armenian Ruble (AMR) 1918 1920 2
Azerbaijan Republic Ruble (AZR) 1918 1920 2
Khiva Tenga (KHVT) 1918 1920 2
Soviet Armenian Ruble (AMSR) 1920 1922 2
Soviet Azerbaijan Ruble (AZSR) 1920 1922 2
Far Eastern Republic Ruble (DBRR) 1920 1922 2
Soviet Transcaucasian Ruble (ZKSR) 1922 1924 2
Spanish Nationalist Peseta (ESPN) 1936 1939 2
Reichs Karbowanez (UAC) 1942 1944 2
US “Hawaiian” Dollar (USDH) 1942 1944 2
Italy American Military Lira (ITA) 1943 1945 2
Italy British Military Lira (ITB) 1943 1945 2
Italy “Badaglio” Lira (ITLB) 1943 1945 2
Italy “Mussolini” Lira (ITLM) 1943 1945 2
Korean Military Won (KROM) 1945 1947 2
French Franc Nouveau (FRF) 1960 1962 2
Biafran Pound (BIAP) 1968 1970 2
Oman Rial Saidi (OMS) 1970 1972 2
Argentina Peso Argentino (ARP) 1983 1985 2 Yes
Yugoslav Convertible Dinar (YUN) 1990 1992 2 Yes
Belarus Ruble (BYL) 1992 1994 2
Bosnia Dinar (BAD) 1992 1994 2 Yes
Georgia Kupon Larit (GEK) 1993 1995 2 Yes
Krajina (Serbian Republic) 1994 Dinar (HRKG) 1994 1996 2 Yes
Maryland Black Shillings (CMDB) 1780 1783 3
Confederate States Dollar (CSAD) 1861 1864 3
Mexico “Inconvertible” Paper Peso (MXI) 1913 1916 3
Georgian Ruble (GER) 1918 1921 3
Danzig Mark (DZGM) 1920 1923 3
Soviet Khiva Ruble (SUVT) 1920 1923 3
Memel Mark (MMLM) 1920 1923 3
Canton Dollar (CNDC) 1935 1938 3
Netherlands Indies Gumpyo Gulden (IDDJ) 1941 1944 3 Yes
Romania Infinex Leu (ROI) 1941 1944 3 Yes
Philippine Guerilla Peso (PHG) 1942 1945 3
Malaya Gumpyo Dollar (MYAG) 1942 1945 3 Yes
Netherlands Indies Gumpyo Roepiah (NIDR) 1943 1946 3
Nationalist Manchurian Yuan (CNNY) 1945 1948 3
Japanese Allied Yen (JPA) 1945 1948 3
German Allied Mark (DEA) 1945 1948 3 Yes
German Sperrmark (DES) 1951 1954 3
Portuguese India Escudo (INPE) 1959 1962 3
Reunion Franc (REF) 1959 1962 3 Yes
Katanga Franc (KATF) 1960 1963 3
Viet Nam South Dong (VNS) 1975 1978 3
Laos Liberation Kip (LAL) 1976 1979 3 Yes
Brazil Cruzado (BRC) 1986 1989 3 Yes
Nicaragua Cordoba (NIC) 1988 1991 3 Yes
Brazil Cruzeiro (BRE) 1990 1993 3 Yes
Russian Ruble (RUR) 1991 1994 3
Bosnia New Dinar (BAN) 1994 1997 3
Alabama Confederate Dollar (CSALD) 1861 1865 4
Arkansas Confederate Dollar (CSAKD) 1861 1865 4
Florida Confederate Dollar (CSFLD) 1861 1865 4
Georgia Confederate Dollar (CSGAD) 1861 1865 4
Louisiana Confederate Dollar (CSLAD) 1861 1865 4
Mississippi Confederate Dollar (CSMSD) 1861 1865 4
North Carolina Confederate Dollar (CSNCD) 1861 1865 4
South Carolina Confederate Dollar (CSSCD) 1861 1865 4
Tennessee Confederate Dollar (CSTND) 1861 1865 4
Texas Confederate Dollar (CSTXD) 1861 1865 4
Spanish Escudo (ESE) 1864 1868 4
Yugoslav Kronen (YUK) 1918 1922 4
Ruble Sovnazki (RUFS) 1918 1922 4
Latvia Ruble (LVB) 1918 1922 4 Yes
Russian Ruble Sovnazki (RUFS) 1918 1922 4 Yes
Soviet Bukhara Ruble (BKSR) 1920 1924 4
Germany Behelfszahlungsmittel (XDEB) 1940 1944 4 Yes
Nanking/CRB Yuan (CNPN) 1941 1945 4
Burmese Gumpyo Rupee (BUG) 1941 1945 4
Croatian Kuna (HRC) 1941 1945 4
Hong Kong Military Yen (HKG) 1941 1945 4
Philippine Gumpyo Peso (PHJ) 1941 1945 4
Japanese Military Yen (XJPM) 1941 1945 4 Yes
French Indochina Military Yen (ICFG) 1941 1945 4 Yes
Oceania Gumpyo Pound (XOGP) 1941 1945 4 Yes
Serbian Dinar (SRDD) 1941 1945 4 Yes
New Hebrides Franc (NHF) 1941 1945 4
French Franc (Allied Military Provisional) (FRP) 1944 1948 4
Djibouti CFA Franc (DJC) 1945 1949 4
Indonesia Guerilla Rupiah (IDG) 1945 1949 4
Taiwan Nationalist Yuan (TWN) 1945 1949 4 Yes
German Bekomark 1954 1958 4
German Libkamark 1954 1958 4
Ruanda-Urundi Franc (BRIF) 1960 1964 4
Algerian New Franc (DZF) 1960 1964 4
Zambian Pound (ZMP) 1964 1968 4
Congolese Zaire (CDZ) 1967 1971 4
Croatian Dinar (HRD) 1991 1995 4
Tatarstan Shamil (RUTS) 1992 1996 4
Ethiopian Birr (ETB) 1993 1997 4
Afghanistan Dostumi Afghani (AFAD) 1998 2002 4 Yes
Afghanistan Rabbini Afghani (AFAR) 1998 2002 4 Yes
Greek Phoenix (GRP) 1828 1833 5
South African Republic Pound (ZAPP) 1905 1910 5
Serbian Dinar (SRBD) 1913 1918 5
Southwest Africa Mark (NAM) 1915 1920 5
Ukraine Grivna (UAG) 1917 1922 5
Rif Republic Riffan (MARR) 1921 1926 5
Italian East Africa Lira (AOIL) 1936 1941 5
Polish Cracow Zloty (PLK) 1940 1945 5
Slovak Koruna (SKO) 1940 1945 5
Netherlands Indies Gumpyo Roepiah (IDDR) 1941 1946 5 Yes
Indonesia “Java” Rupiah (IDJ) 1945 1950 5
Indonesia “Nica” Guilder (IDD) 1945 1950 5
Romanian New Leu (RON) 1947 1952 5 Yes
Chinese Old Jen Min Piao Yuan (CNP) 1948 1953 5 Yes
Bahraini Dinar (AED) 1971 1976 5
Israel Shekel (ILL) 1980 1985 5
Zairean New Zaire (ZRN) 1993 1998 5 Yes
Angola Kwanza Reajustado (AOR) 1995 2000 5 Yes
Tajikistan Ruble (TJR) 1995 2000 5 Yes
French Livre (Assignats) (FRL) 1789 1795 6 Yes
West Indies Joe (GYJ) 1830 1836 6
Fiume Krone (FIUK) 1918 1924 6
Estonia Marka (EEM) 1918 1924 6 Yes
Bohemia and Moravia Koruna (CSM ) 1939 1945 6
Japan Military Yen (CNPY) 1939 1945 6 Yes
Germany Reichskreditkassenscheine (XDEK) 1940 1946 6
North Viet Nam Piastre Dong Viet (VDD ) 1953 1959 6 Yes
Rhodesian Pound (RHP) 1964 1970 6
Peru Inti (PEI) 1985 1991 6 Yes
Transnistrian Kupon Ruble (PDK) 1994 2000 6 Yes
Connecticut Continental Shilling (CCTS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Delaware Continental Shilling (CDES) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Maryland Continental Shilling (CMDS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Massachusetts Continental Shilling (CMAS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
New Jersey Continental Shilling (CNJS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
New York Continental Shilling (CNYS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
North Carolina Continental Shilling (CNCS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Pennsylvania Continental Shilling (CPAS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Rhode Island Continental Shilling (CRHS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
South Carolina Continental Shilling (CSCS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Virginia Continental Shilling (CVAS) 1776 1783 7 Yes
Georgia Continental Shilling (CGAS) 1776 1783 7
New Hampshire Continental Shilling (CNHS) 1776 1783 7
Hungarian Korona (HUK) 1918 1925 7 Yes
Viet Minh Piastre Dong Viet (VDP) 1946 1953 7
Congolese Republic Franc (CDG) 1960 1967 7 Yes
Gambia Pound (GMP) 1964 1971 7
Malawi Pound (MWP) 1964 1971 7
Qatar-Dubai Riyal (XQDR) 1966 1973 7
Peseta Guineana (GQP) 1968 1975 7
Viet Nam New Dong (VNN) 1978 1985 7
Equatorial Guinea Franco (GQF) 1985 1992 7
Argentina Austral (ARA) 1985 1992 7 Yes
Russian Federation Ruble (RUR) 1991 1998 7 Yes
Belarus New Ruble (BYB) 1994 2001 7 Yes
Massachusetts Shilling Middle Tenor (CMAM) 1741 1749 8
Massachusetts Shilling New Tenor (CMAN) 1741 1749 8
New Hampshire Lawful Shilling (CNHL) 1755 1763 8
Chinese Paper Tael (CNTP) 1853 1861 8
Montenegro Perper (MEP) 1910 1918 8
Kiau Chau Dollar (JPY) 1914 1922 8
Germany Darlenskasse Ost Mark (DEOM) 1914 1922 8
Ottoman Empire Paper Lira (XOTL) 1914 1922 8
Polish Marka (PLM) 1916 1924 8
German Kreditsperrmark (DERK) 1931 1939 8 Yes
German Effektensperrmark (DERE) 1931 1939 8 Yes
Czechoslovak New Koruna (CSC) 1945 1953 8
Irian Barat Rupiah (IDIR) 1963 1971 8
Connecticut Dollar (CCTD) 1783 1792 9
Delaware Dollar (CDED) 1783 1792 9
Georgia Dollar (CGAD) 1783 1792 9
Maryland Dollar (CMDD) 1783 1792 9
Massachusetts Dollar (CMAD) 1783 1792 9
New Hampshire Dollar (CNHD) 1783 1792 9
New Jersey Dollar (CNJD) 1783 1792 9
New York Dollar (CNYD) 1783 1792 9
North Carolina Dollar (CNCD) 1783 1792 9
Pennsylvania Dollar (CPAD) 1783 1792 9
Rhode Island Dollar (CRHD) 1783 1792 9
South Carolina Dollar (CSCD) 1783 1792 9
Virginia Dollar (CVAD) 1783 1792 9
Fiji Old Dollar (FJO) 1865 1874 9
Peking/Tientsin/Northern China/FRB Yuan (CNPP) 1935 1944 9
Meng Chiang (Bank of Inner Mongolia) Yuan (CNPM) 1936 1945 9
Sinkiang Yuan (CNSY) 1939 1948 9 Yes
German Registermark (XRDERM/DERR) 1939 1948 9 Yes
German Handelsperrmark (DERH) 1939 1948 9 Yes
German Reichskreditkassenschein (XDEK) 1939 1948 9 Yes
South Korean Hwan (KRH) 1953 1962 9
Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation Pound (RHFP) 1956 1965 9
Liberian Liberty Dollars (LRDL) 1991 2000 9
Texas Dollar (TXSD) 1836 1846 10
Austro-Hungarian Monetary Union Gulden (XATG) 1857 1867 10
Moldova Ducat (MDD) 1857 1867 10
Colombia Peso (COP) 1905 1915 10 Yes
British Military Authority Lira (LYB) 1941 1951 10 Yes
Greek New Drachma (GRN) 1944 1954 10 Yes
India Haj Pilgrimage Rupee (XINP) 1950 1960 10
Somali Somalo (SOIS) 1950 1960 10
Bulgarian Socialist Lev (BGM) 1952 1962 10
French Affars and Issas Franc (AIF) 1967 1977 10
Rhodesian Dollar (RHD/ZWC) 1970 1980 10
Angola Kwanza Novo (AON) 1990 2000 10 Yes
Angola Escudo Portuguese (AOE) 1914 1925 11
Saar Franc (SAAF) 1919 1930 11
Spanish Republican Peseta (ESPR) 1931 1942 11
Persian Gulf Rupee (XPGR) 1959 1970 11
Reunion Nouveau Franc (REN) 1963 1974 11
Ekuele (Epkwele) Guineana (GQE) 1975 1986 11
Liberian JJ Dollars (LRDJ) 1989 2000 11
German Behelfszahlungsmittel fuer die Deutsche Wehrmacht (XDEB) 1936 1948 12 Yes
North Korea People’s Won (KPP) 1947 1959 12 Yes
Albanian Lek Foreign Exchange Certificates (ALX) 1953 1965 12
Saint Pierre CFA Nouveau Franc (XCF) 1960 1972 12
Ghana Revalued Cedi (GHR) 1967 1979 12
New Hampshire Colonial Shilling (CNHC) 1763 1776 13
Rhode Island Colonial Shilling (CRHC) 1763 1776 13
Ecuador Peso (ECP) 1871 1884 13
Soviet Chervonetz (SUC) 1922 1935 13
Manchukuo Yuan (CNMY) 1932 1945 13
Netherlands New Guinea Guilder (NNGG) 1950 1963 13
Argentina Peso Ley 18.188 (ARL) 1970 1983 13
Iraqi “Swiss print” Kurdistan Dinar (IQDS) 1991 2004 13
South German Vereinsgulden (XDSG) 1857 1871 14
Venezuela Venezolano (VEV) 1873 1887 14
Soviet New Ruble (SUM) 1947 1961 14
Guinea Franc (GNI) 1958 1972 14
Nigerian Pound (NGP) 1959 1973 14
Somali Scellino (SOS) 1960 1974 14
Guinea Syli (GNS/GNE) 1972 1986 14
Angola Kwanza (AOK) 1977 1991 14
Connecticut Shilling New Tenor (CCTN) 1740 1755 15
Argentina Peso Fuerte (ARF) 1860 1875 15
Colombian Gold Peso (COG) 1871 1886 15
Crete Drachma (GKD) 1898 1913 15
East Africa Rupee (XEAR) 1905 1920 15
Burmese Rupee (BUR) 1937 1952 15
French Antilles Franc (XNF) 1960 1975 15
Chilean Escudo (CLE) 1960 1975 15 Yes
Sudanese Dinar (SDD) 1992 2007 15 Yes
US Paper Dollar (USP) 1862 1878 16
Bulgarian Lev Srebro (BGS) 1904 1920 16
Italian Somaliland Rupiah (SOIR) 1909 1925 16
Saudi Arabian Riyal (SAA) 1916 1932 16
Danzig Gulden (DZGG) 1923 1939 16
German Rentenmark (DEN) 1923 1939 16
Estonia Kroon (EEN) 1924 1940 16
Saudi Sovereign Riyal (SAS) 1936 1952 16
Southern Rhodesian Currency Board Pound (RHSP) 1940 1956 16
Saint Pierre CFA Franc (XCFG) 1943 1959 16 Yes
Indonesia New Rupiah (IDN) 1949 1965 16 Yes
British Caribbean Territories (Eastern Group) Dollar (XBCD) 1951 1967 16
Timor Escudo (TPE) 1959 1975 16
US Continental Dollar (USC) 1775 1792 17 Yes
Spanish Real/Peso Duro (ESR) 1847 1864 17
Puerto Rican Peso (PRS) 1881 1898 17
Kiau Chau Dollar (KCHD) 1897 1914 17
Shanghai Dollar (CNDA) 1914 1931 17
Peking Dollar (CNDB) 1914 1931 17
Hankow Dollar (CNDH) 1914 1931 17
Kansu Dollar (CNDK) 1914 1931 17
Kwangtung Dollar (CNDG) 1914 1931 17
Manchurian Dollar (CNDM) 1914 1931 17
Heilungkiang Tiao (CNHT) 1914 1931 17
Kirin Tiao (CNKT) 1914 1931 17
Shantung Dollar (CNDS) 1914 1931 17
Szechwan Dollar (CNDZ) 1914 1931 17
Chinese Soviet Yuan (CNSD) 1931 1948 17
Italian States Franco (XITF) 1798 1816 18
Riksdaler Riksmynt (SEM) 1855 1873 18
Latvia Lat (LVA) 1922 1940 18
Lithuanian Lita (LTB) 1922 1940 18
Italian Lira (XITL) 1925 1943 18
Chinese Custom Gold Units (CNU) 1930 1948 18
Djibouti Franc (DJA ) 1949 1967 18
Angolan Escudo (AOS) 1958 1976 18 Yes
Uruguay Peso Nuevo (UYP/UYN) 1975 1993 18 Yes
South German Gulden (XDEG) 1838 1857 19
North German Thaler (XDET) 1838 1857 19
Albanian Lek (ALK) 1946 1965 19
North Viet Nam New Dong (VDN/VNC) 1959 1978 19
Brazil Cruzeiro Novo (BRB) 1967 1986 19 Yes
Congo CFA Franc (COF) 1973 1992 19
Gabon CFA Franc (GAF) 1973 1992 19
Chinese US Dollar Foreign Exchange Certificates (CNX) 1979 1998 19
Czechoslovak Pre-War Koruna (CSO) 1919 1939 20
Belgian Belga (BEB) 1925 1945 20
Madagascar Franc (MGG) 1925 1945 20
Libyan Pound (LYP) 1951 1971 20
Cambodia Old Riel (KHO) 1955 1975 20
South Viet Nam Republic Dong (VNR) 1955 1975 20 Yes
Bulgarian Lev Foreign Exchange Certificates (BGX) 1966 1986 20
Luxembourg Convertible Franc (LUC) 1970 1990 20
Guinea-Bissau Peso (GWP) 1976 1996 20
New Hampshire Shilling New Tenor (CNHN) 1742 1763 21
Connecticut Colonial Shilling (CCTC) 1755 1776 21
Russian Gold Ruble (RUER) 1897 1918 21
Albania Franga (ALF) 1925 1946 21
Hungarian Pengoe (HUP) 1925 1946 21 Yes
Laos Old Kip (LAO) 1955 1976 21
Ghana Pound (GHP) 1958 1979 21
Uganda Shilling (UGS/UGW) 1966 1987 21 Yes
Mali Franc (MLF/MAF) 1962 1984 22
Zairean Zaire (ZRZ) 1971 1993 22 Yes
Luxembourg Thaler (LUT) 1848 1871 23
Yugoslav Serbian Dinar (YUS) 1918 1941 23
Mozambique Libra Esterlina (MZL) 1919 1942 23
Tanu Tuva Aksha (TVAA) 1921 1944 23
Soviet Gold Ruble (SUG) 1924 1947 23
Palestine Pound (PSP) 1927 1950 23
Bolivian Peso (BOP) 1963 1986 23 Yes
Brazil Mil Reis (BRM) 1822 1846 24 Yes
Central American Escudo (XCAE) 1823 1847 24
Sinkiang Tael (CNST) 1912 1936 24
Yunnan Yuan (CNYY) 1912 1936 24
Austria Old Schilling (ATO) 1923 1947 24
German Reichsmark (DER) 1924 1948 24 Yes
Yugoslav Hard Dinar (YUD) 1966 1990 24 Yes
Paper Riksdaler Banco (SEO) 1830 1855 25
Austro-Hungarian Gulden (ATG) 1867 1892 25
Colombia Paper Peso (COB) 1880 1905 25 Yes
Malaya Dollar (MYAD) 1938 1963 25
South Yemeni Dinar (YDD) 1965 1990 25
Austro-Hungarian Kronen (ATK) 1892 1918 26 Yes
Massachusetts Colonial Shilling (CMAC) 1749 1776 27
German East African Rupie (DOAR) 1890 1917 27
Maryland Colonial New Shilling (CMDN) 1748 1776 28
North Carolina Shilling New Tenor (CNCN) 1748 1776 28
South Carolina Colonial Shilling (CSCC) 1748 1776 28
Zanzibar Rupee (ZZR) 1908 1936 28
Lebanon-Syria Pound (XLSP) 1920 1948 28
New Jersey Colonial Shilling (CNJC) 1746 1776 30
Haiti Silver Gourde (HTS) 1814 1844 30
British West Indies Dollar (XBWD) 1935 1965 30
Madagascar and Comores CFA Franc (XMCF) 1945 1975 30
Polish US Dollar Foreign Exchange Certificates (PLX) 1960 1990 30
Soviet Hard Ruble (SUR) 1961 1991 30
Rhode Island Proclamation Shilling (CRHP) 1709 1740 31
Rhode Island Shilling New Tenor (CRHN) 1740 1771 31
Guyana British West Indies Dollar (XBWD) 1935 1966 31
Ethiopian Dollar (ETD) 1945 1976 31
French Indochina Piastre of Commerce (ICFC) 1863 1895 32
Cameroon Mark (CMDM) 1884 1916 32
Angola Angolar (AOA) 1926 1958 32
Israel Pound (ILP) 1948 1980 32
COMECON Transferable Ruble (XTR) 1960 1992 32
Tunisian Franc (TNF) 1858 1891 33 Yes
Colombia Peso Oro (COE) 1837 1871 34
Mozambique Mil Reis (MZR) 1877 1911 34
Maldive Islands Rupee (MVP/MVQ) 1947 1981 34
Somalia Shilling (SOS) 1960 1994 34 Yes
Korea Yen (KROY) 1910 1945 35
New Hebrides CFP Franc (NHF) 1945 1981 36
North Korea Foreign Won (KPX) 1959 1995 36
Dutch Gulden (BRG) 1624 1661 37
Burmese Kyat (BUK) 1952 1989 37
Bulgarian Heavy Lev (BGL/BGK) 1962 1999 37 Yes
Haiti Piastre Gourde (HTT) 1776 1814 38
Union Latine Franc (XULF) 1889 1927 38
Union Latine Lira (XULL) 1889 1927 38
Ethiopian Silver Talari (ETT) 1893 1931 38
Netherlands Indies Gumpyo Gulden (NIDJ) 1905 1943 38
Djibouti Franc Germinal (DJG) 1907 1945 38
North Carolina Proclamation Shilling (CNCP) 1709 1748 39
Rial Hassani (MAH) 1881 1920 39
Tibet Silver Rupee (TBR) 1912 1951 39
Finland New Markka (FIM) 1963 2002 39
Paraguay Paper Peso (PYP) 1903 1943 40 Yes
Czechoslovak Hard Koruna (CSK) 1953 1993 40
French Franc (FRF) 1962 2002 40
Georgia Colonial Shilling (CGAC) 1735 1776 41
Philippine Peso Fuerte (PHF) 1857 1898 41
Ottoman Empire Gold Lira (XOTG) 1881 1922 41
South African Pound (ZAP) 1920 1961 41
Sudanese Pound (SDP) 1957 1998 41
Malagasy Franc (MGF) 1963 2004 41
Maryland Proclamation Shilling (CMDP) 1709 1751 42
Italian States Ducat (XITD) 1818 1860 42
Peru Peso (PEP) 1821 1863 42
DDR Ostmark (DDM) 1948 1990 42
East Caribbean Dollar (XCD) 1965 2008 43
Sao Tome and Principe Mil Reis (STM) 1869 1913 44
Bulgarian Lev Zlato (BGZ) 1880 1924 44
Tangier Franco (MATF) 1912 1956 44
Polish Heavy Zloty (PLZ) 1950 1994 44 Yes
South Carolina Proclamation Shilling (CSCP) 1703 1748 45
Massachusetts Old Tenor Proclamation Shilling (CMAP) 1704 1749 45
Cape Verde Mil Reis (CVM) 1869 1914 45 Yes
Serbian Dinar (SRBD) 1873 1918 45
Finland Markka (FIN) 1917 1962 45 Yes
Tonga Pound Sterling (TOS) 1921 1966 45
Brazil Cruzeiro (BRZ) 1942 1987 45 Yes
Connecticut Shilling Old Tenor (CCTO) 1709 1755 46
Argentina National Peso (XARP) 1816 1862 46 Yes
Hawaii Dollar (HWD) 1847 1893 46
Afghanistan Kabuli Rupee (AFR) 1881 1927 46
French West African Franc (XAOF) 1895 1941 46
East Africa Shilling (XEAS) 1921 1967 46
Haiti Paper Gourde (HTP) 1826 1873 47
Luxembourg Mark (LUM) 1871 1918 47
New Caledonia CFP Franc (NCF) 1945 1992 47
Costa Rican Peso (CRP) 1848 1896 48
South Korean Old Won (KRO) 1905 1953 48 Yes
Greek Drachma (GRD) 1954 2002 48
North German Vereinsthaler (XDNT) 1857 1907 50
Yugoslav Federation Dinar (YUF) 1945 1995 50 Yes
Chinese Silver Yin Yuan (CNS) 1949 2000 51
Paraguay Peso Fuerte (PYF) 1871 1923 52
Scandinavian Monetary Union Krona (XSMK) 1872 1924 52
Trinidad and Tobago Dollar (TTO) 1899 1951 52
Fiji Pound (FJP) 1917 1969 52
Delaware Colonial Shilling (CDEC) 1723 1776 53
Italian States Lira Austriaca (XITA) 1813 1866 53
German Mark (DEP) 1871 1924 53 Yes
British West Africa Pound 1913 1966 53
Western Samoa Pound (WSP) 1914 1967 53
New Hampshire Old Tenor Proclamation Shilling (CNHP) 1709 1763 54 Yes
Riksdaler Specie (SES) 1776 1830 54
Paper Riksdaler (SER) 1776 1830 54
Argentina Gold Peso (ARG) 1875 1929 54
Taiwan Yen (TWY) 1895 1949 54
Maltese Pound (MTP) 1914 1968 54
German Deutsche Mark (DEM) 1948 2002 54
Austria (New) Schilling (ATS) 1947 2002 55
Italian States Scudo (XITS) 1814 1870 56
Bermuda Pound (BMP) 1914 1970 56
Paraguay National Peso (PYN) 1813 1870 57
French Oceania (Tahiti) Franc (PFG) 1888 1945 57
Australian Pound (AUP) 1909 1966 57
Montenegro Krone (MEK) 1852 1910 58
Chinese Dollar/Yuan (Chungking/Shanghai Yuan) (CND) 1890 1948 58
Mozambique Escudo (MZE) 1922 1980 58
Union Latine Drachma (XULD) 1868 1927 59
Union Latine Peseta (XULP) 1868 1927 59
Danish Rigsbankdaler (DKR) 1813 1873 60
Greenland Riksbankdaler (GLR) 1813 1873 60
New Zealand Pound (NZP) 1907 1967 60
Dominican Republic Silver Peso (DOS) 1844 1905 61
British North Borneo Dollar (BNBD) 1885 1946 61
Massachusetts Bay Shilling (CMAB) 1642 1704 62
Union Latine Franc (XULF) 1865 1927 62
Union Latine Franc (XULF) 1865 1927 62
Union Latine Franc (XULF) 1865 1927 62
Union Latine Lira (XULL) 1865 1927 62
Portuguese Guinea Escudo (GWE) 1914 1976 62
Iceland Old Krone (ISJ) 1918 1980 62 Yes
Timor Pataca (TPP) 1895 1958 63
Sao Tome and Principe Escudo (STE) 1914 1977 63
Andorra Pesseta (ADP) 1936 1999 63
Suriname Guilder (SRG) 1940 2003 63 Yes
New Jersey Proclamation Shilling (CNJP) 1682 1746 64
Jamaica Pound (JMP) 1905 1969 64
Danish West Indies Rigsdaler (DWIR) 1784 1849 65
Nicaragua Silver Peso (NIP) 1847 1912 65
Mauritius Dollar (MUD) 1810 1876 66
New York Proclamation Shilling (CNYP) 1709 1776 67
Pennsylvania Proclamation Dollar (CPAP) 1709 1776 67
Virginia Proclamation Shilling (CVAP) 1709 1776 67
New Caledonia Franc Germinal (NCG) 1874 1941 67
Danish West Indies Dalare (DWID) 1849 1917 68
Luxembourg Gulden (LUG) 1848 1918 70
Argentina Paper Peso Moneda National (ARM) 1899 1970 71 Yes
Portuguese Account Conto (PTC) 1931 2002 71
El Salvador Peso (SVP) 1847 1919 72
Bulgarian Lev (BGO) 1879 1952 73 Yes
Vatican City Lira (VAL) 1929 2002 73
Russian Assignatzia (RUEA) 1768 1843 75
Russian Silver Ruble (RUES) 1839 1914 75
Russian Paper Ruble (RUEP) 1843 1918 75
Belgian Congo Franc (CBEF) 1885 1960 75
Afghanistan Afghani (AFA) 1927 2002 75 Yes
Madeira Islands Milreis (IPM) 1834 1910 76
Portuguese Mil Reis (PTM) 1835 1911 76
Nicaragua Gold Cordoba (NIG) 1912 1988 76 Yes
Ceylon Rupee (LNR) 1872 1949 77
Guatemala Peso (GTP) 1847 1925 78
Portuguese India Rupia (INPR) 1881 1959 78
Moroccan Franc (MAF) 1881 1959 78 Yes
Colombia Peso Oro (COP) 1915 1993 78 Yes
Honduras Peso (HNP) 1847 1926 79
Romania Silver Leu (ROS) 1867 1947 80 Yes
British Honduras Dollar (BZH) 1894 1974 80
Irish Pound (IEP) 1922 2002 80
Sarawak Dollar (SWKD) 1863 1946 83
Turkish Lira (TRL) 1922 2005 83 Yes
German States Convention Thaler (XDCT) 1753 1838 85
Straits Settlements Dollar (STSD) 1857 1946 89
Portuguese Escudo (PTE) 1911 2002 91
Pound Sterling (CAP ) 1766 1858 92
Reunion Franc Germinal (REG) 1851 1944 93
Hyderabad Sicca Rupee (INRH) 1858 1951 93
French Indochina Piastre (ICFP) 1862 1955 93
Newfoundland Dollar (NFLD) 1858 1952 94
Greenland Krone (GLK) 1873 1967 94
Polish Zloty (XPLZ) 1700 1795 95
Taiwan Tael/Dollar (TWT) 1800 1895 95
Portuguese Guinea Mil Reis (GWM) 1879 1974 95
Bahamas Pound (BSP) 1869 1966 97
Russian Empire Paper Ruble (RUEP) 1818 1917 99
Bolivia Boliviano (BOL) 1863 1962 99 Yes
Danish Rigsdaler Courant (DKC) 1713 1813 100
Austro-Hungarian Convention Gulden (XATC) 1753 1857 104
East India Rix Dollar (XEIR) 1800 1905 105
Manx Pound (IMP) 1865 1971 106
Iranian Kran (IRK) 1825 1932 107
Franc Guiana (GUF) 1851 1959 108
Guadeloupe Franc (GPF) 1851 1959 108
Martinique Franc (MQF) 1851 1959 108
Algerian Franc Germinal (DZG) 1851 1959 108 Yes
Chilean Peso/Condor (CLC) 1851 1959 108 Yes
Daler Silvermynt (SED) 1665 1776 111
Greek Silver Drachma (GRS) 1833 1944 111 Yes
Uruguay Peso Fuerte (UYF) 1862 1975 113 Yes
Paper Daler (SEP) 1661 1776 115
Ecuador Sucre (ECS) 1884 2000 116
Luxembourg Financial Franc (LUL) 1870 1991 121
Monaco Franc Germinal (MCG) 1837 1959 122
Peru Sol (PES/PEH) 1863 1985 122 Yes
Silver Piastre/Peso (XESE) 1700 1823 123
Brazil Reis (BRD) 1694 1822 128 Yes
Thailand Silver Tical (THT) 1800 1928 128
Netherlands East Indies Guilder (IDDG) 1817 1945 128
Jersey Pound Sterling (JEP) 1840 1971 131
Spanish Peseta (ESP) 1868 2002 134
Italian States Scudo Romano (XITS) 1700 1835 135
Colonial Shilling (XCCS) 1640 1776 136
San Marino Lira (SML) 1865 2001 136
Venezuela Bolivar (VEB) 1871 2008 137 Yes
East India Company Dollar (XEID) 1719 1858 139
Austrian Paper Gulden (ATP) 1753 1892 139
Italian Lira (ITL) 1862 2002 140
Newfoundland Pound (NFLP) 1713 1858 145
Bukhara Tenga (BKHT) 1768 1920 152
Portuguese Reis (PRT) 1505 1658 153
Luxembourg Franc (LUF) 1848 2002 154
French Franc Germinal/Franc Poincare (FRG) 1803 1959 156 Yes
Azores Milreis (APM) 1750 1911 161
Ceylon Rijksdaalder (Rix Dollar) (XNLR) 1658 1821 163
French Colonial Livre (XFCL) 1654 1820 166
Mexico Silver Peso (MXP) 1822 1992 170 Yes
Belgian Franc (BEF) 1831 2002 171
Tibet Tangka (TBT) 1735 1912 177
Poland Florin Zloty (PLF) 1614 1795 181
Portuguese Reis (PTR) 1722 1911 189 Yes
Netherlands Guilder (NLG) 1813 2002 189
Danish Gold Krone of Account (DKG) 1513 1713 200
French India Roupie (INFR) 1736 1954 218
Scotland Pound (SSP) 1707 1971 264
Northern Irish Pound (IBP) 1694 1971 277
Korea Won (KROW) 1625 1910 285
Italian States Testone (XITT) 1500 1814 314
Iranian Toman (IRT) 1600 1932 332
Mexican Trade Silver Dollar (XMSD) 1600 1935 335
Chinese Silver Tael (CNT) 1600 1935 335 Yes
Hamburg Schilling (HAMS) 1510 1871 361
Ottoman Empire Piastre (XOTP) 1463 1881 418
Italian States Lira (XITL) 1284 1862 578
French Livre Tournois (FRT) 1204 1795 591 Yes

What this tells us is that people almost always will loose faith in Fiat currency especially when governments/banks have the power to print to make themselves wealthy or go to war and destroying our livelihood’s. That is why Fiat currencies and Fractional reserve banking is a crime against humanity.

Here are some of the current fiat currencies that will fail at one point in history:

Currency Name (Currency Code) Inception Duration
Venezuela Bolivar Fuerte 2008 7 mos.
Sudanese Pound (SDG) 2007 1
Turkish New Lira (TRY) 2005 3
Suriname Dollar (SRD) 2004 4
Afghanistan Afghani (AFN) 2002 6
Yugoslav Noviy (Super) Dinar (SCD) 2002 6
Transnistrian New Ruble (PDN) 2001 7
Belarus Newer Ruble (BYR) 2000 8
Tajikistan Somoni (TJS) 2000 8
Angola Kwanza (new) (AOA) 1999 9
Bulgarian New Lev (BGN) 1999 9
Euro (EUR) 1999 9
Russian Federation New Ruble (RUB) 1999 9
Congolese Franc (CDF) 1998 10
Eritrean Nakfa (ERN) 1997 11
Ukraine Hryvnia (UAH) 1996 12
Bosnia Convertible Mark (BAM) 1995 13
Georgia Larit (GEL) 1995 13
Polish New Zloty (PLN) 1995 13
Serbian Dinar (RSD) 1994 14
Brazil Real (BRL) 1994 14
Croatian Kuna (HRK) 1994 14
Cuba “Peso Convertible” (CUC) 1994 14
Yugoslav Noviy (Super) Dinar (YUM) 1994 14
Somaliland Shilling (SQS) 1994 14
Uzbekistan Sum (UZS) 1994 14
Armenian Dram (AMD) 1993 15
Azerbaijan Manat (AZM) 1993 15
Colombia Peso (COP) 1993 15
Czech Koruna (CZK) 1993 15
Kazakhstan Tenge (KZT) 1993 15
Kyrgyzstan Som (KGS) 1993 15
Latvia Lat (LVL) 1993 15
Lithuania Lita (LTL) 1993 15
Macedonian New Denar (MKD) 1993 15
Mexico New Peso (MXN) 1993 15
Moldovan Leu (MDL) 1993 15
Myanmark Dollar Foreign Exchange Certificates (MMX) 1993 15
Namibia Dollar (NAD) 1993 15
Turkmenistan Manat (TMM) 1993 15
Uruguay Peso Uruguayo (UYU) 1993 15
Argentina Peso Convertible (ARS) 1992 16
Estonia Kroon (EEK) 1992 16
Slovak Koruna (SKK) 1992 16
Slovenia Tolar (SIT) 1992 16
Nicaragua Cordoba Oro (NIO) 1991 17
Peru Sol Nuevo (PEN) 1991 17
Yemeni Rial (YER) 1990 18
Myanmar Kyat (MMK) 1989 19
Bolivian Boliviano (New) (BOB) 1987 21
Cook Islands Dollar (CKD)* 1987 21
Uganda New Shilling (UGX) 1987 21
Aruba Guilder (AWG) 1986 22
New Franc Guineen (GNF) 1986 22
Israel New Shekel (ILS) 1985 23
Viet Nam Dong (VND) 1985 23
Madagascar Ariary (MGA) 1983 25
Iceland Krona (ISK) 1981 27
Maldive Islands Rufiyaa (MVR) 1981 27
Vanuatu Vatu (VUV) 1981 27
Mozambique Metical (MZM) 1980 28
Cambodia New Riel (KHR) 1980 28
Lesotho (Ma)Loti (LSL) 1980 28
Zimbabwe Dollar (ZWD) 1980 28
Ghana New Cedi (GHC) 1979 29
Laos New Kip (LAK) 1979 29
Sri Lanka Rupee (LKR) 1978 30
Djibouti Franc (DJF) 1977 31
Sao Tome and Principe Dobra (STD) 1977 31
Solomon Islands Dollar (SBD) 1977 31
Botswana Pula (BWP) 1976 32
Ethiopian Birr (ETB) 1976 32
Chilean Peso (CLP) 1975 33
Comoros Franc (KMF) 1975 33
Papua New Guinea Kina (PGK) 1975 33
Belize Dollar (BZD) 1974 34
Bhutan Ngultrum (BTN) 1974 34
Somali Shilin Soomaali (SOS) 1974 34
Swaziland Lilangeni (SZL) 1974 34
Barbados Dollar (BBD) 1973 35
Mauritania Ouguiya (MRO) 1973 35
Nigerian Naira (NGN) 1973 35
Qatari Rial (QAR) 1973 35
United Arab Emirates Dirham (AED) 1973 35
Bangladesh Taka (BDT) 1972 36
Rial Omani (OMR) 1972 36
Cayman Islands Dollar (KYD) 1971 37
Gambia Dalasi (GMD) 1971 37
Northern Irish Pound (IBP) 1971 37
Libyan Dinar (LYD) 1971 37
Malawi Kwacha (MWK) 1971 37
Scotland Pound (SSP) 1971 37
Bermudan Dollar (BMD) 1970 38
Fiji Dollar (FJD) 1969 39
Jamaica Dollar (JMD) 1969 39
Maltese Lira (MTL) 1968 40
Zambian Kwacha (ZMK) 1968 40
Brunei Dollar (BND) 1967 41
New Zealand Dollar (NZD) 1967 41
Western Samoa Ta’la (WST) 1967 41
Singapore Dollar (SGD) 1967 41
Australian Dollar (AUD) 1966 42
Bahamas Dollar (BSD) 1966 42
Kenyan Shilling (KES) 1966 42
Tanzania Shilling (TZS) 1966 42
Tonga Pa’anga (TOP) 1966 42
Albanian “Heavy” Lek (ALL) 1965 43
Bahraini Dinar (BHD) 1965 43
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) 1965 43
Algerian Dinar (DZD) 1964 44
Burundi Franc (BIF) 1964 44
Rwanda Franc (RWF) 1964 44
Sierra Leone Leone (SLL) 1964 44
Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) 1963 45
South Korean Won (KRW) 1962 46
Kuwaiti Dinar (KWD) 1961 47
South African Rand (ZAR) 1961 47
Franc Metropolitan (XMF) 1960 48
Tunisian Dinar (TND) 1960 48
North Korea New Won (KPW) 1959 49
Moroccan Dirham (MAD) 1959 49
Tunisian Dinar (TND) 1958 50
French Polynesian CFP Franc (XPF) 1957 51
Chinese Renminbi Yuan (CNY) 1953 55
Romanian Leu (RON) 1952 56
Saudi Riyal (SAR) 1952 56
Jordan Dinar (JOD) 1950 58
Faeroe Islands Kronur (FOK) 1949 59
Taiwan New Dollar (TWD) 1949 59
Lebanese Pound (LBP) 1948 60
Pakistan Rupee (PKR) 1948 60
Syrian Pound (SYP) 1948 60
Dominican Republic Peso Oro (DOP) 1947 61
Hungary Forint (HUF) 1946 62
Liberian Dollar (LRD) 1944 64
Paraguay Guarani (PYG) 1943 65
West African CFA Franc (XOF) 1941 67
Central African CFA Franc (XAF) 1941 67
Mauritius Rupee (MUR) 1934 74
Nepalese Rupee (NPR) 1933 75
Iranian Rial (IRR) 1932 76
Iraqi Dinar (IQD) 1931 77
Thailand Baht (THB) 1928 80
Gibraltar Pound (GIP) 1713 81
Honduras Lempira (HNL) 1926 82
Guatemala Quetzal (GTQ) 1925 83
Liechtenstein Franc (LIF)* 1921 87
El Salvador Colon (SVC) 1919 89
Guyana Dollar (GYD) 1916 92
Mongolia Tugrik (MNT) 1915 93
Cape Verde Escudo (CVE) 1914 94
Cyprus Pound (CYP) 1914 94
Falkland Islands Pound (FKP) 1908 100
French Pacific Territories Franc (XPF) 1905 103
Norway Krone (NOK) 1905 103
Somali N-Shilling (SON) 1905 103
Trinidad and Tobago Dollar (TTD) 1905 103
Panama Balboa (PAB) 1903 105
Macao Pataca (MOP) 1901 107
Saint Helena Pound (SHP) 1901 107
Seychelles Rupee (SCR) 1900 108
Philippine Piso (PHP) 1898 110
Costa Rican Colon (CRC) 1896 112
Hong Kong Dollar (HKD) 1895 113
Egyptian Pound (EGP) 1885 123
Danish Krone (DKK) 1873 135
Swedish Krona (SEK) 1873 135
Haiti Gourde (HTG) 1872 136
Japanese Yen (JPY) 1871 137
Cuban Peso (CUP) 1859 149
Canadian Dollar (CAD) 1858 150
Guernsey Pound Sterling (GGP) 1827 181
India Rupee (INR) 1823 185
Netherlands Antillan Guilder (ANG) 1821 187
Swiss Franc (CHF) 1799 209
US Dollar (USD) 1792 216
Pound Sterling (GBP) 1694 314

After looking at these charts I can find one fail at the end of this chart see the bold letters above. The US dollar has not been alive since 1792. There have been different types of currencies in the US and 2 other US central banks. The US dollar has only been alive since the late 1800’s. There has in-between 1792 to the late 1800’s been 2 gold/silver backed currencies and 2 fiat currencies. None of them has been called the US dollar!

The Destruction of Wealth and FIAT Currency and Fractional Reserve Banking

Throughout time of the almost 800 years of existence the creation of currency by governments and bankers are laiden with destruction of wealth and life’s around the world! here are some histories that caused big events and are not reported on as reckless behavior by governments and bankers. We never get the truth behind money crisis, but here are some of the biggest histories:

Weimar Republic (Germany)

I have met people from all around the world and there are a couple of them that have told me some amazing stories about currency devaluation in their countries. I have read about the lady in the Weimar Republic which had a wheelbarrow full of money to buy bread and had her wheelbarrow stolen and the money left behind. Or the 5 Billion Reichmark bill which was so worthless that they did not print both sides as the ink was more expensive than the face value of the 5 billion reichmark. Kids playing with stacks of billion reichmarks. Or people using the Fiat Currency to heat their house by burning it as it was cheaper than firewood.

Zimbawe

How about in Zimbabwe where it took 10B Zimbabwean Dollars to buy a pack of eggs.